Extracellular Vesicles from Adipose Tissue—A Potential Role in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes?
Freeman, Dilys J.
- Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Frontiers in Endocrinology,
(issn: 1664-2392, eissn: 1664-2392)
extracellular vesicles | differentiation | non-alcoholic fatty liver disease | adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells | Review | adipocytes | insulin resistance | Endocrinology
Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and its pathological sequelae, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dysfunction in the adipose tissue response to storing excess fatty acids as triglyceride can lead to adipose tissue inflammation and spillover of fatty acids from this tissue and accumulation of fatty acids as lipid droplets in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from adipocytes and have been proposed to be involved in adipocyte/macrophage cross talk and to affect insulin signaling and transforming growth factor β expression in liver cells leading to metabolic disease. Furthermore EV produced by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) can promote angiogenesis and cancer cell migration and have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. ADSC EVs have therapeutic potential in vascular and neurodegenerative disease and may also be used to target specific functional miRNAs to cells. Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose-derived EV which may be related to the metabolic complications of obesity. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of EV produced by adipose tissue and the potential impact of adipose tissue-derived EV on metabolic diseases associated with obesity.