Recovery in SoccerPart II—Recovery Strategies

Article English OPEN
Nedelec, Mathieu ; McCall, Alan ; Carling, Chris ; Legall, Franck ; Berthoin, Serge ; Dupont, Grégory (2013)
  • Publisher: Springer Verlag
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1007/s40279-012-0002-0
  • Subject: [SHS.SPORT] Humanities and Social Sciences/Sport | [ SHS.SPORT ] Humanities and Social Sciences/Sport

International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration , glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching , compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until now do not significantly accelerate the return to initial levels of performance in comparison with a control condition. In conclusion, scientific evidence to support the use of strategies commonly used during recovery is lacking. Additional research is required in this area in order to help practitioners establish an efficient recovery protocol immediately after matchplay, but also for the following days. Future studies could focus on the chronic effects of recovery strategies, on combinations of recovery protocols and on the effects of recovery strategies inducing an anti-inflammatory or a pro-inflammatory response.
  • References (169)
    169 references, page 1 of 17

    1. Ne´de´lec M, McCall A, Carling C, et al. Recovery in soccer: part I-post-match fatigue and time course recovery. Sports Med. In press.

    2. Ekstrand J, Walde´n M, Ha¨gglund M. A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players: correlation between match exposure of European footballers before the World Cup 2002 and their injuries and performances during that World Cup. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):493-7.

    3. Dupont G, Nedelec M, McCall A, et al. Effect of 2 soccer matches in a week on physical performance and injury rate. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(9):1752-8.

    4. Bishop D. An applied research model for the sport sciences. Sports Med. 2008;38(3):253-63.

    5. Shirreffs SM, Taylor AJ, Leiper JB, et al. Post-exercise rehydration in man: effects of volume consumed and drink sodium content. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(10):1260-71.

    6. Jentjens R, Jeukendrup A. Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery. Sports Med. 2003;33(2): 117-44.

    7. Erith S, Williams C, Stevenson E, et al. The effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16(4): 393-404.

    8. Gunnarsson TP, Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, et al. Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48 h after a soccer game. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

    9. Bowtell JL, Leese GP, Smith K, et al. Modulation of whole body protein metabolism, during and after exercise, by variation of dietary protein. J Appl Physiol. 1998;85(5):1744-52.

    10. Ivy JL. Regulation of muscle glycogen repletion, muscle protein synthesis and repair following exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2004;3:131-8.

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark