V − 0 = 0. Because d is small compared to the distance between the electrodes and other conducting surfaces at V = 0 in our experiments, symmetry is nearly preserved, with V 0 Vp / 2 and E z −E −z . To account for V 0 = Vp, V 0 Vp / 2, and V − 0 = 0, we divide the right side of Eq. B2 by two to yield Eq. 1 for the Laplacian electric field in our pin-pin electrode configuration.
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