Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees

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Elsa Youngsteadt; R Holden Appler; Margarita M López-Uribe; David R Tarpy; Steven D Frank;

Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies... View more
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