A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Other Energy Return Ratios

Article, Other literature type English OPEN
Brandt, Adam R.; Dale, Michael;
  • Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
  • Journal: Energies,volume 4,issue 8 8,pages1-35 (issn: 1996-1073)
  • Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.3390/en4081211
  • Subject: energy return on investment | Technology | energy return on investment; energy efficiency; energy quality | energy quality | T | energy efficiency
    • jel: jel:Q0 | jel:Q | jel:Q4 | jel:Q47 | jel:Q49 | jel:Q48 | jel:Q43 | jel:Q42 | jel:Q41 | jel:Q40

The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs) such as the net energy ratio (NER) or energy return on investment (EROI). A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/E... View more
  • References (60)
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