Critical perspectives on the security and protection of human rights defenders
Bennett, Karen; Ingleton, Danna; Nah, Alice M.; Savage, James;
Subject: 3312 | 3308
Since the United Nations General Assembly’s adoption of the Declaration on Human Rights Defenders in 1998, there has been considerable effort to recognise and protect the right of individuals, groups and communities to promote and protect their own rights and the rights... View more
1. Adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 53/144, 9 December 1998, A/RES/53/144.
2. Michel Forst, Human Rights Defenders (Front Line Defenders, 2008), http://www. frontlinedefenders.org/files/en/Background%20to%20the%20UN%20Declaration%20on% 20Human%20Rights%20Defenders.pdf.
3. Stephen D. Krasner, 'Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables', International Organization 36, no. 2 (1982): 185.
4. UN Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders, Commentary to the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, July 2011, 5.
5. UN General Assembly Human Rights Council, Resolution 27/31, Civil Society Space, A/HRC/ RES/27/31 (3 October 2014); UN General Assembly Human Rights Council, Resolution 24/21, Civil Society Space, A/HRC/RES/24/21 (9 October 2013).
6. Inmaculada Barcia, Our Right to Safety: Women Human Rights Defenders' Holistic Approach to Protection (Toronto: Association for Women's Rights in Development, 2014); Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development, Claiming Rights, Claiming Justice: A Guidebook on Women Human Rights Defenders (Chiangmai, 2007); Inmaculada Barcia and Analía Penchaszadeh, Ten Insights to Strengthen Responses for Women Human Rights Defenders at Risk (Toronto: Association for Women's Rights in Development, 2012).
7. UN Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders, Margaret Sekaggya, 'Safe and Enabling Environment for Defenders', A/HRC/25/ 55, 23 December 2013.
8. East and Horn of Africa Human Rights Defenders Project, 'Networks for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders: Notes from the Field', Journal of Human Rights Practice 5, no. 3 (2013): 522-34; Vanessa Kogan, 'Protecting Human Rights Defenders in the North Caucasus: Reflections on Developments from 2009 to the Present', Journal of Human Rights Practice 5, no. 3 (2013): 500-11.
9. Todd Landman, 'Holding the Line: Human Rights Defenders in the Age of Terror', British Journal of Politics & International Relations 8, no. 2 (2006): 123-47.
For a discussion of these debates see: David Chandler, 'Resilience and Human Security: The Post-Interventionist Paradigm', Security Dialogue 43, no. 3 (2012): 213-29; Taylor Owen, 'Human Security - Conflict, Critique and Consensus: Colloquium Remarks and a Proposal for a Threshold-Based Definition', Security Dialogue 35, no. 3 (2004): 373-87; Roland Paris, 'Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?', International Security 26, no. 2 (2001): 87-102.