A Software Reference Architecture for Service-Oriented 3D Geovisualization Systems

Other literature type, Article English OPEN
Dieter Hildebrandt (2014)
  • Publisher: MDPI AG
  • Journal: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (issn: 2220-9964)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.3390/ijgi3041445
  • Subject: software reference architecture | image-based representation | spatial data infrastructure | 3D geovisualization | standardization | Geography (General) | G1-922 | service-oriented architecture

Modern 3D geovisualization systems (3DGeoVSs) are complex and evolving systems that are required to be adaptable and leverage distributed resources, including massive geodata. This article focuses on 3DGeoVSs built based on the principles of service-oriented architectures, standards and image-based representations (SSI) to address practically relevant challenges and potentials. Such systems facilitate resource sharing and agile and efficient system construction and change in an interoperable manner, while exploiting images as efficient, decoupled and interoperable representations. The software architecture of a 3DGeoVS and its underlying visualization model have strong effects on the system’s quality attributes and support various system life cycle activities. This article contributes a software reference architecture (SRA) for 3DGeoVSs based on SSI that can be used to design, describe and analyze concrete software architectures with the intended primary benefit of an increase in effectiveness and efficiency in such activities. The SRA integrates existing, proven technology and novel contributions in a unique manner. As the foundation for the SRA, we propose the generalized visualization pipeline model that generalizes and overcomes expressiveness limitations of the prevalent visualization pipeline model. To facilitate exploiting image-based representations (IReps), the SRA integrates approaches for the representation, provisioning and styling of and interaction with IReps. Five applications of the SRA provide proofs of concept for the general applicability and utility of the SRA. A qualitative evaluation indicates the overall suitability of the SRA, its applications and the general approach of building 3DGeoVSs based on SSI.
  • References (123)
    123 references, page 1 of 13

    1. MacEachren, A.M.; Kraak, M.J. Research challenges in geovisualization. Cartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 2001, 28, 3-12.

    2. Krafzig, D.; Banke, K.; Slama, D. Enterprise SOA: Service-Oriented Architecture Best Practices; Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2004.

    3. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Ed. ISO 19101:2002, Geographic Information-Reference model; International Organization for Standardization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.

    4. Open Geospatial Consortium. OGC Reference Model, Version 2.1; Open Geospatial Consortium: Wayland, MA, USA, 2011.

    5. Akenine-Möller, T.; Haines, E.; Hoffman, N. Real-Time Rendering, 3rd ed.; A. K. Peters, Ltd.: Natick, MA, USA, 2008; p. 1045.

    6. Gonzalez, R.C.; Woods, R.E. Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.; Pearson Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2008; p. 954.

    7. Hildebrandt, D. Image-based styling. Vis. Comput. 2014, under review.

    8. Hildebrandt, D.; Hagedorn, B.; Döllner, J. Image-based strategies for interactive visualisation of complex 3D geovirtual environments on lightweight devices. J. Locat. Based Serv. 2011, 5, 100-120.

    9. Hildebrandt, D.; Timm, R. An assisting, constrained 3D navigation technique for multiscale virtual 3D city models. GeoInformatica 2014, 18, 537-567.

    10. Hildebrandt, D.; Döllner, J. Service-oriented, standards-based 3D geovisualization: Potential and challenges. J. Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 2010, 34, 484-495.

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark