Risk of coronary artery disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus

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Vilela, Felippe Dantas ; de Lorenzo, Andrea Rocha ; Tura, Bernardo Rangel ; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini ; Hadlich, Marcelo ; de Lima Barros, Marcelo Viana ; Ribeiro Lima, Ana Beatriz ; Meirelles, Vanderson (2011)
  • Publisher: Elsevier BV
  • Journal: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, volume 15, issue 6, pages 521-527 (issn: 1413-8670)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1590/S1413-86702011000600004, doi: 10.1016/s1413-8670(11)70245-8
  • Subject: coronary artery disease | HIV protease inhibitors | RC109-216 | HIV | Infectious and parasitic diseases | Medicine(all) | cardiovascular diseases

Current treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved survival and allowed infected patients to develop atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Specific strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in the infected population have not been developed. It is necessary to know the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in this population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk using a well-known clinical score and to investigate coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) in this population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Adults with HIV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data, serum glucose and lipids were obtained. Cardiovascular risk was calculated through Framingham risk score (FRS) and CACS. Categorical variables were compared by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Student t test or Mann-Whitney test. An analysis of concordance between FRS and CACS was performed using kappa statistic. RESULTS: Forty patients, aged 45.9 ± 8.1 years, were studied. Age of risk for CAD were found in 30.0%, hypertension in 55.0%, diabetes in 10.0%, smoking in 35.0%, dyslipidemia in 67.5% and family history of CAD in 57.5%. Altered levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were found in 30.0%, 25.0% and 82.5%, respectively. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were altered more frequently among protease inhibitors users. The FRS classified the risk as low for 72.5%, moderate for 25.0%, and high for 2.5%. CACS > 0 was found in 32.5% of the patients, in 67.5% the score was low, in 17.5% moderate, and in 15.0% high. Concordance between FRS and CACS showed a kappa = 0.435. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of risk factors for CAD in the studied population, with dyslipidemia being the most frequent. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were the most frequently altered factors and were associated with the use of protease inhibitors. Risk assessed by the FRS was low in most cases. CACS > 0 was found in 32.5%, demonstrating the need to re-evaluate the strategies for assessing cardiovascular risk in the HIV-infected population.