Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa

Report, Preprint OPEN
World Bank Group ; UNHCR (2015)
  • Publisher: World Bank, Washington, DC and UNHCR, Geneva
  • Subject: KNOWLEDGE BASE | MIGRATION FLOWS | LEGAL STATUS | TREATIES | DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS | SAFE WATER | TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES | RESOLUTION | ASYLUM | EMERGENCIES | BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS | SOCIAL ISSUES | MIGRANT | REFUGEE SITUATIONS | ASYLUM-SEEKERS | SOCIAL SERVICES | CIVIL WAR | VICTIMS | KNOWLEDGE | NUMBER OF REFUGEES | TRAUMA | FAMILY MEMBERS | LOCAL ECONOMY | SERVICE PROVISION | ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES | DISASTERS | TUBERCULOSIS | DISEASES | SELF- RELIANCE | VULNERABILITY | STATUS OF REFUGEES | CHILD LABOR | VOLUNTARY REPATRIATION | POPULATION | SCARCITIES | PEACE | SECURITY SITUATION | POPULATIONS | ECONOMIC INTEGRATION | ABUSE | SCARCE RESOURCES | LABOR MIGRANTS | POPULATION GROWTH | COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN | NUMBER OF PEOPLE | INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS | RAPID POPULATION GROWTH | PUBLIC SERVICES | POLICY FRAMEWORK | HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS | POLICY | RETURNEES | COMMUNITIES OF ORIGIN | RETURNEE | COMMUNITY EDUCATION | ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS | HEALTH BURDEN | SOCIAL CUSTOMS | DEVELOPMENT PLANNING | ECONOMIC CAPACITIES | REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS | MORTALITY | PROGRESS | PUBLICATIONS | INTERNAL CONFLICTS | RULE OF LAW | REFUGEES | AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION | NATIONALS | NATURAL DISASTERS | PANDEMIC | VULNERABLE GROUPS | INFANT MORTALITY | INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES | TECHNICAL CAPACITY | PROVISION OF SERVICES | TECHNICAL TRAINING | ILLITERACY | REFUGEE MOVEMENTS | NATIONAL GOVERNMENT | DISCRIMINATION | DETERMINATION OF REFUGEE STATUS | LOCAL GOVERNMENTS | DISASTER PREPAREDNESS | NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS | INFLUX OF REFUGEES | MIGRATION POLICY | RESPECT | SELF-RELIANCE | INFANT MORTALITY RATES | UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND | MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS | ARMED CONFLICT | SOIL EROSION | WARS | GENDER INEQUALITY | POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY | ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT | POLITICAL LEADERSHIP | TRAINING | VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN | POLICY DEVELOPMENT | PRESIDENTIAL DECREE | REGIONAL INITIATIVES | SERVICE DELIVERY | HEALTH CARE | IRREGULAR MIGRANTS | MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS | CITIZENSHIP | LOCAL DEVELOPMENT | WAR | URBAN AREAS | MANDATES | GENDER ROLES | INCOME INEQUALITY | MIGRANTS | MIGRATION | CAUSES OF DISPLACEMENT | PULL FACTORS | PLAN OF ACTION | ECOSYSTEM | NATIONAL POLICY | MIGRANT POPULATIONS | INFANT | POLITICAL INSTABILITY | ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY | WATER RESOURCES | DISSEMINATION | REFUGEE STATUS | POLICY DIALOGUE | HOST COUNTRIES | FOOD INSECURITY | REPATRIATION | DEVELOPMENT GOALS | SEXUAL EXPLOITATION | MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE | PURCHASING POWER | PUSH FACTOR | MOVEMENTS OF PEOPLE | HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS | URBANIZATION | SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT | EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES | UNEMPLOYMENT | UNFPA | NATIONAL LEVEL | WOMEN | UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES | ECONOMIC GROWTH | NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT | LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES | SANITATION | HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES | ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY | ASYLUM SEEKERS | TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE | ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION | ILLNESS | NATIONAL SECURITY | URBAN CENTERS | IMMIGRATION | EXTENDED FAMILIES | WATER MANAGEMENT | NATIONAL BORDERS | GROUNDWATER | SOCIAL COHESION | SAFETY NET | PRIMARY EDUCATION | POPULATION FUND | POPULATION STATISTICS | DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS | DEVELOPMENT PLANS | REFUGEE | PROTECTION OF REFUGEES | REFUGEE CAMPS | DISABILITY | REMITTANCES | MINORITY | HUMAN TRAFFICKING | HOST COUNTRY | NATIONAL INITIATIVES | DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE | LARGE NUMBERS OF REFUGEES | NUMBER OF PERSONS | CLIMATE CHANGE | GOVERNMENT AGENCIES | HEALTH FACILITIES | INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION | Conflict and Development - Post Conflict Reconstruction Social Development - Social Cohesion Communities and Human Settlements - Human Migrations & Resettlements Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Poverty Reduction - Migration and Development | SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT | NUTRITION | POPULATION GROWTH RATE | COUNTRIES OF ASYLUM | QUALITY OF LIFE | POLITICAL PARTICIPATION | SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT | IRREGULAR MIGRATION | SOCIAL CONFLICT | NATURAL RESOURCES | FORCED MIGRATION | HUMAN RIGHTS | POLICIES | TERRORISTS | YOUNG PEOPLE | TERRORIST | LABOR MARKET | SOCIAL IMPACT | MISUNDERSTANDING | MARRIAGE | HEALTH SERVICES | FUTURE GENERATIONS | COUNTRY OF ORIGIN | INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE | DIET | PUBLIC HEALTH | PUBLIC EDUCATION | ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES | RIGHTS OF WOMEN | LIVING STANDARDS | SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE | LEGAL RIGHTS | LOCAL CAPACITY | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT | FOOD SECURITY | INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY | MEAT | ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE | MEASLES

The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environme... View more
  • References (18)
    18 references, page 1 of 2

    Figure 1. Trends in Refugees and Asylum Seekers, by country of asylum (2000-2013) .......................... 21   Figure 2. Trends in Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), 2005-2014 ....................................................... 22   Figure 3. Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the Horn of Africa (June 2014) ............................................. 60   Figure 4. Eritrean Refugees and Asylum Seekers, by country of asylum by mid-2014 ............................. 61   Figure 5. Somali Refugees and Asylum Seekers, by country of asylum as of mid-2014........................... 63   Figure 6. South Sudanese Refugees, by country of asylum (March 2015) ............................................... 67   Figure 7. Sudanese Refugees, by country of asylum (2013)..................................................................... 69   MAPS:

    Map 1. Demographics of the Displaced ..................................................................................................... 16   Map 2. HOA Displacement Overview, end of 2013 ................................................................................... 17   TABLES:

    20. The African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention) imposes comprehensive legal obligations on contracting states to respect, protect, and fulfill the economic, social, cultural, civil, and political rights of IDPs, including prevention, response, and durable solutions. It draws heavily from the UN guiding principles, but strengthens the framework for the protection and assistance for IDPs in several ways, including addressing the role of armed groups and other non-state actors, and requiring contracting states to seek assistance when its resources are inadequate to protect and assist IDPs, incorporate obligations into national legislation, and designate a national institutional focal point on internal displacement. Uganda and Somalia have signed and ratified the convention. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and South Sudan have signed the convention but failed to ratify it. Kenya and Sudan have not yet signed the Kampala Convention.

    21. Only three HOA countries have a comprehensive legal and policy framework dealing with internal displacement. Uganda is one of the first countries in the world to develop a national policy for IDPs, which guarantees the right of IDPs to choose between return, local integration, and settlement elsewhere in the country; establishes the responsibility of government to protect its citizens from arbitrary displacement; and specifies the detailed institutional arrangements for the protection and assistance of IDPs at national and subnational levels. Kenya's IDP legislation-the Prevention, Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons and Affected Communities Act 2012-confirms the application of the Great Lakes Protocol and UN Guiding Principles to IDPs in the country; enshrines the responsibility of government to prevent arbitrary displacement; establishes the government's responsibility to protect and assist IDPs, including facilitating durable solutions; and specifies the institutional responsibilities for IDPs. In Sudan, the National GOSS (Government of the Republic of South Sudan). 2012. “Fragility Assessment: South Sudan.” Accessible at: <http://www.newdeal4peace.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/South-Sudan_FASummary_Draft_121212.pdf>.

    GOSS (Government of the Republic of South Sudan). 2011. “South Sudan Development Plan 2011-2013. Realizing freedom, equality, justice, peace and prosperity for all.” Juba: GOSS.

    Head, Jeff Crisp, Tim Morris, and Hilde Refstie. 2012. “Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.” Disasters 36: 23-42.

    Hemmer, Jort. 2012. “South Sudan's Emergency State.” Oslo: NOREF (Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre).

    Humanitarian Exchange. 2013. “Special Feature: South Sudan at a crossroads.” London: Humanitarian Practice Network.

    ICG (International Crisis Group). 2009. “Jonglei's Tribal Conflicts: Countering Insecurity in South Sudan.” Africa report no. 154. Addis Ababa/Juba/Nairobi/Brussels: ICG.

    ICG (International Crisis Group). 2013. “Sudan's spreading conflict (II): War in Blue Nile.”. 18. Africa report no. 204. Addis Ababa/Juba/Nairobi/Brussels: ICG.

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