Widespread contamination of wildflower and bee-collected pollen with complex mixtures of neonicotinoids and fungicides commonly applied to crops

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David, Arthur; Botias, Cristina; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Rotheray, Ellen L; Hill, Elizabeth M; Goulson, Dave;

There is considerable and ongoing debate as to the harm inflicted on bees by exposure to agricultural pesticides. In part, the lack of consensus reflects a shortage of information on field-realistic levels of exposure. Here, we quantify concentrations of neonicotinoid i... View more
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