Rural Society

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Ermacora, Matteo (2015)

This essay surveys the long-term negotiation of religious reform in European villages. Following an account of institutional developments and popular religion in late medieval parishes, it traces the—selective—reception of the Lutheran, Zwinglian, and Calvinist messages... View more
  • References (90)
    90 references, page 1 of 9

    1. ↑ On the issue of hierarchical relationships and violence, see: Schulte, Regina: The village in court. Arson, infanticide, and poaching in the court records of Upper Bavaria, 1848-1910, Cambridge 1994.

    2. ↑ Van Zanden, Jan Luiten: The first green revolution. The growth of production and productivity in European agriculture, 1870-1914, in: Economic History Review 2 (1991), pp. 215-239.

    3. ↑ Pecout, Gilles / Pigenet, Michel (eds.): Campagnes et sociètès en Europe 1830-1930, Paris 2005, p. 5.

    4. ↑ Offner, Avner: The First World War. An agrarian interpretation, Oxford 1989, p. 1.

    5. ↑ See for example: Augé-Laribè, Michel: L'agriculture pendant la guerre, Paris et al. 1922; Serpieri, Arrigo: La guerra e le classi rurali italiane, Bari et. al. 1930.

    6. ↑ Weber, Eugene: Peasants into Frenchmen. The modernization of rural France 1870-1914, Stanford 1976; Mosse, George: Fallen soldiers. Reshaping the memory of world wars, New York et al. 1990. Duby, Georges / Wallon, Armand (eds.): Histoire de la France rurale. Tome 4. La fin de la France paysanne. De 1914 à nos jours, Paris 1977.

    7. ↑ See for example: Procacci, Giovanna: Dalla rassegazione alla rivolta. Mentalità e comportamenti popolari durante la grande guerra, Rome 1999; Alpern Engel, Barbara: Not by bread alone. Subsistence riots in Russia during World War I, in: The Journal of Modern History 69/4 (1997), pp. 696-721.

    8. ↑ On the importance of private and public sources, see: White, Bonnie: The agricultural community at war, issued by British Association for Local History, online: (retrieved: 10 August 2014). For the “continuum” period, see: Holquist, Peter: Making war, forging revolution. Russia's continuum of crisis, 1914-1921, Cambridge 2002, pp. 1-8; Figes, Orlando: Peasant Russia, civil war. The Volga countryside in revolution, 1913-1921, Oxford 1989.

    9. ↑ Winter, Jay / Prost, Antoine: The Great War in history. Debates and controversies, 1914 to the present, Cambridge 2005, p. 165. For a recent useful survey, see: Ziemann, Benjamin: Agrarian society, in: Winter, Jay (ed.): The Cambridge history of the First World War, vol. II, The state, Cambridge 2014, pp. 382-407.

    10. ↑ See: Ziemann, Benjamin: War experiences in rural Germany, 1914-1923, Oxford et al. 2007; Purseigle, Pierre: Beyond and below the nations. Towards a comparative history of local communities at war, in: MacLeod, Jenny / Purseigle, Pierre (eds.): Uncovered fields. Perspectives in First World War studies, Leiden 2004, pp. 95-123.

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