21 'The second empire - the Glasgow Chamber in the 1830s and 1840s', Glasgow Chamber of Commerce Journal, 57, 10, 1972, p. 333.
22 John Butt, 'The industries of Glasgow', in W. Hamish Fraser and Irene Maver, eds., Glasgow, vol. II: 1830 to 1912, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996, p. 98.
23 Margaret A. Whitehead, 'The development of the Clyde's eastern trade circa 1815-1850', PhD thesis, University of Strathclyde, 1993, p. 631.
24 Manuel De Landa, A thousand years of nonlinear history, New York: Swerve, 2000, pp. 76-7.
25 Ben Marsden and Crosbie Smith, Engineering empires, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp. 94, 108.
26 Crosbie Smith and M. Norton Wise, Energy and empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 654.
27 Stephen Fox, The ocean railway, London: HarperCollins, 2003, pp. 274.
28 Anthony Slaven, 'Modern British shipbuilding, 1800-1990', in L. A. Ritchie, ed., The shipbuilding industry: a guide to historical records, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992, p. 5.
Roland Wenzlhuemer, 'The dematerialization of telecommunication: communication centres and peripheries in Europe and the world, 1850-1920', Journal of Global History, 2, 2, 2007, pp. 345-72.
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MLG, Newspapers on microfilm (henceforth NM), The Glasgow Daily Herald, 11 November 1869.
British Library, India Office Records (henceforth BL, IOR), Parliamentary Papers (henceforth PP), 1871, 51: East India Telegraphs, pp. 366-7.
BL, IOR, Newspapers on microfilm (henceforth NM), Bombay Gazette, 1 January 1870.
MLG, NM, The Glasgow Daily Herald, 13 December 1869.