Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in... View more
24) Kono M, Yamashita H, Kubota K, Kano T and Mimori A. FDG-PET imaging in Pneumocystis pneumonia. Clin Nucl Med 2015; 40: 679-681.
25) Shafiek H, Fiorentino F, Cosio B, et al. Usefulness of bronchoscopic probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Respiration 2016; 92: 40-47.
26) Wang HW, Lin CC, Kuo CF, Liu CP, Lee CM. Mortality predictors of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients at presentation: Experience in a tertiary care hospital of northern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011; 44(4):274-281.
27) Vogel MN, Weissgerber P, Goeppert B, et al. Accuracy of serum LDH elevation for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011;141:w13184
28) Zeglen S, Wojarski J, Wozniak-Grygiel E, Siola M et al. Procalcitonin serum concentration during Pneumocystis jiroveci colonisation or Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection/colonisation in lung transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2009; 41:3225-3227.
29) Nyamande K and Lalloo UG. Serum procalcitonin distinguishes CAP due to bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and PJP. Int J Tuberc Lund Dis. 2006; 10: 510-515.
30) Salerno D, Mushatt D, Myers L, Zhuang Y, de la Rua N, Calderon EJ and Welsh DA. Serum and BAL beta-D-glucan for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV positive patients. Resp Med 2014; 108:1688-1695.
31) Fei MW, Kim EJ, Sant CA, et al. Prediciting mortality from HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia at illness presentation: an observational cohort study. Thorax 2009; 64:1070-1076
40) Cregan, P, Yamamoto A, Lum A, et al. Comparison of four methods for rapid detection of Pneumocystis carnii in respiratory specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1990; 28: 2432-2436.
41) Cruciani M, Marcati P, Malena M, et al. Meta-analysis of diagnostic procedures for Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia in HIV-1-infected patients. Eur Resp J 2002; 20:982-989.