publication . Article . 2012

Human Responses to Disasters: A Pilot Study on Peritraumatic Emotional and Cognitive Processing

Grimm, Anna; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke;
Open Access
  • Published: 13 Mar 2012 Journal: Europe’s Journal of Psychology, volume 8 (eissn: 1841-0413, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Leibniz-Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID)
  • Country: United Kingdom
Abstract
This research article presents the qualitative development and cross-cultural pilot testing of a new instrument measuring emotional and cognitive processing during disasters. The instrument was developed according to a theoretical framework based on narratives from survivors of different types of disaster across Europe. Peritraumatic emotions and cognitions were assessed at three different stages of a disaster. The pilot study consisted of 311 participants responding to the questionnaire using scenario versions of disasters as well as 25 survivors working through the questionnaire using their experiences of real disasters. Both types of analysis were performed a...
Subjects
free text keywords: General Psychology, Clinical psychology, Psychology, Working through, Narrative, Cognition, Risk perception, Disaster research, BF
Related Organizations
Funded by
EC| BESECU
Project
BESECU
Human behaviour in crisis situations: A cross cultural investigation to tailor security-related communication
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 218324
  • Funding stream: FP7 | SP1 | SEC

Alexander, D. E. (2007). Misconception as a barrier to teaching about disasters.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 22(2), 95-103.

Armaş, I. (2006). Earthquake risk perception in Bucharest, Romania. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1223-1234. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00810.x Başoğlu, M., Salcioğlu, E., & Livanou, M. (2002). Traumatic stress response in earthquake survivors in Turkey. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(4), 269-276.

doi:10.1023/A:1016241826589 Birmes, P. J., Brunet, A., Coppin-Calmes, D., Arbus, C., Coppin, D., Charlet, J.-P., Vinnemann, N., Juchet, H., Lauque, D., & Schmitt, L. (2005). Symptoms of Peritraumatic and Acute Traumatic Stress among Victims of an Industrial Disaster. [OpenAIRE]

Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 56(1), 93-95. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.56.1.93 Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 339-376. doi:10.1016/S0272- 7358(03)00033-3 Briere, J., Scott, C., & Weathers, F. (2005). Peritraumatic and Persistent Dissociation in the Presumed Etiology of PTSD. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12), 2295-2301. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2295 Brunet, A., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T. J., Best, S. R., Neylan, T. C., Rogers, C., Fagan, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2001). The peritraumatic distress inventory: A proposed measure of PTSD Criterion A2. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1480-1485.

doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.9.1480 Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169-200. doi:10.1080/02699939208411068 Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345. doi:10.1016/S0005- 7967(99)00123-0 Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17(2), 124-129.

doi:10.1037/h0030377 Fikretoglu, D., Brunet, A., Best, S., Metzler, T., Delucchi, K., Weiss, D. S., .Fagan, J. & Marmar, C. (2006). The relationship between Peritraumatic Distress and Peritraumatic Dissociation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(11), 853-858. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000244563.22864.f1 Fikretoglu, D., Brunet, A., Best, S. R., Metzler, T. J., Delucchi, K., Weiss, D. S., Fagan, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2007). Peritraumatic fear, helplessness and horror and Gierlach, E., Belsher, B. E., & Beutler, L. E. (2010). Cross-cultural differences in risk perceptions of disasters. Risk Analysis, 30(10), 1539-1549. doi:10.1111/j.1539- 6924.2010.01451.x Goodwin, R., Wilson, M., & Gaines, S., Jr. (2005). Terror perception and its consequences in contemporary Britain. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 389-406. [OpenAIRE]

doi:10.1348/000712605X62786 Grimm, A., Hulse, L., & Schmidt, S. (2009). Risk perception and psychological reactions in public crisis situations using the example of terror attacks. [OpenAIRE]

Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 52(12), 1129-1140. doi:10.1007/s00103-009-0966-6 Grimm, A., Hulse, L., Preiss, M. & Schmidt, S. (2011a). Behavioural, cognitive and emotional responses in European disasters: Results of survivor interviews.

Grimm, A., Hulse, L., Preiss, M. & Schmidt, S. (2011b). Post- and peritraumatic stress in European disaster survivors: An explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Halligan, S. L., Michael, T., Clark, D. M., & Ehlers, A. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder following assault: The role of cognitive processing, trauma memory, and appraisals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3), 419-431.

doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.419 Helweg-Larsen, M. (1999). (The lack of) optimistic biases in response to the 1994 Northridge earthquake: The role of personal experience. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 119-129. [OpenAIRE]

Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 52-73. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.52 Petersen, C., Schmidt, S., Power, M., & Bullinger, M. (2005). Development and pilot testing of a health-related quality of life chronic generic module for children and adolescents with chronic health conditions: A European perspective. Quality of Life Research, 14, 1065-1077. doi:10.1007/s11136-004-2575-z Prati, G., Catufi, V., & Pietrantoni, L. (2012). The Umbria-Marche earthquake: Emotional and behavioral reactions to earth tremors. Disasters. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01264.x

Related research
Abstract
This research article presents the qualitative development and cross-cultural pilot testing of a new instrument measuring emotional and cognitive processing during disasters. The instrument was developed according to a theoretical framework based on narratives from survivors of different types of disaster across Europe. Peritraumatic emotions and cognitions were assessed at three different stages of a disaster. The pilot study consisted of 311 participants responding to the questionnaire using scenario versions of disasters as well as 25 survivors working through the questionnaire using their experiences of real disasters. Both types of analysis were performed a...
Subjects
free text keywords: General Psychology, Clinical psychology, Psychology, Working through, Narrative, Cognition, Risk perception, Disaster research, BF
Related Organizations
Funded by
EC| BESECU
Project
BESECU
Human behaviour in crisis situations: A cross cultural investigation to tailor security-related communication
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 218324
  • Funding stream: FP7 | SP1 | SEC

Alexander, D. E. (2007). Misconception as a barrier to teaching about disasters.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 22(2), 95-103.

Armaş, I. (2006). Earthquake risk perception in Bucharest, Romania. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1223-1234. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00810.x Başoğlu, M., Salcioğlu, E., & Livanou, M. (2002). Traumatic stress response in earthquake survivors in Turkey. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(4), 269-276.

doi:10.1023/A:1016241826589 Birmes, P. J., Brunet, A., Coppin-Calmes, D., Arbus, C., Coppin, D., Charlet, J.-P., Vinnemann, N., Juchet, H., Lauque, D., & Schmitt, L. (2005). Symptoms of Peritraumatic and Acute Traumatic Stress among Victims of an Industrial Disaster. [OpenAIRE]

Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 56(1), 93-95. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.56.1.93 Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 339-376. doi:10.1016/S0272- 7358(03)00033-3 Briere, J., Scott, C., & Weathers, F. (2005). Peritraumatic and Persistent Dissociation in the Presumed Etiology of PTSD. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12), 2295-2301. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2295 Brunet, A., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T. J., Best, S. R., Neylan, T. C., Rogers, C., Fagan, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2001). The peritraumatic distress inventory: A proposed measure of PTSD Criterion A2. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1480-1485.

doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.9.1480 Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169-200. doi:10.1080/02699939208411068 Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345. doi:10.1016/S0005- 7967(99)00123-0 Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17(2), 124-129.

doi:10.1037/h0030377 Fikretoglu, D., Brunet, A., Best, S., Metzler, T., Delucchi, K., Weiss, D. S., .Fagan, J. & Marmar, C. (2006). The relationship between Peritraumatic Distress and Peritraumatic Dissociation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(11), 853-858. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000244563.22864.f1 Fikretoglu, D., Brunet, A., Best, S. R., Metzler, T. J., Delucchi, K., Weiss, D. S., Fagan, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2007). Peritraumatic fear, helplessness and horror and Gierlach, E., Belsher, B. E., & Beutler, L. E. (2010). Cross-cultural differences in risk perceptions of disasters. Risk Analysis, 30(10), 1539-1549. doi:10.1111/j.1539- 6924.2010.01451.x Goodwin, R., Wilson, M., & Gaines, S., Jr. (2005). Terror perception and its consequences in contemporary Britain. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 389-406. [OpenAIRE]

doi:10.1348/000712605X62786 Grimm, A., Hulse, L., & Schmidt, S. (2009). Risk perception and psychological reactions in public crisis situations using the example of terror attacks. [OpenAIRE]

Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 52(12), 1129-1140. doi:10.1007/s00103-009-0966-6 Grimm, A., Hulse, L., Preiss, M. & Schmidt, S. (2011a). Behavioural, cognitive and emotional responses in European disasters: Results of survivor interviews.

Grimm, A., Hulse, L., Preiss, M. & Schmidt, S. (2011b). Post- and peritraumatic stress in European disaster survivors: An explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Halligan, S. L., Michael, T., Clark, D. M., & Ehlers, A. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder following assault: The role of cognitive processing, trauma memory, and appraisals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3), 419-431.

doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.419 Helweg-Larsen, M. (1999). (The lack of) optimistic biases in response to the 1994 Northridge earthquake: The role of personal experience. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 119-129. [OpenAIRE]

Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 52-73. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.52 Petersen, C., Schmidt, S., Power, M., & Bullinger, M. (2005). Development and pilot testing of a health-related quality of life chronic generic module for children and adolescents with chronic health conditions: A European perspective. Quality of Life Research, 14, 1065-1077. doi:10.1007/s11136-004-2575-z Prati, G., Catufi, V., & Pietrantoni, L. (2012). The Umbria-Marche earthquake: Emotional and behavioral reactions to earth tremors. Disasters. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01264.x

Related research
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