Technological innovation in poultry supply\ud chain from a halal perspective in Iran
Attar, Maryam Mazloom
Technology and innovation pervade all aspects of modern life. In past decades, technological innovations have changed the poultry industry from what was once a small-scale back yard operation to industrialised intensive mass production farming. In Iran, technology transfer has had a varying degree of adoption amongst poultry farms. Technological advances in supply chain management and the increase in global demand for halal products has led to closer integration of halal supply chains globally. This global integration of supply chains inhibits the opportunities for many developing countries to participate in the global supply chains. The aim of this study is to investigate the specific implications and influences that technology can have on the conduct, attitudes and working relationships of individuals working on poultry farms in Iran from a halal perspective.\ud \ud \ud Previous approaches to the examination of the adoption and diffusion of technology in agribusiness have focused either on systemic change initiatives shaped by technology that lead to the transformation of an entire organisation (macro level theories) or on small-scale and individual adopters in an organisation that may benefit from technological change (micro level theories). There is widely-agreed recognition of the fact that these approaches, by not fully encapsulating the interactions between the structure and individuals, have failed to fully appreciate the complexity of technological adoption within the institutions. Therefore there has been a shift towards an integrative approach that recognises the interactions and interconnections between the structure and the individuals within the social structure, which also consists of traditions, cultures, and moral codes (i.e. the halal concept).\ud \ud \ud In pursuing the research aim, Giddens’ structuration theory, along with Orlikowski’s structuration model of technology adoption and Rogers’ work on adoption and diffusion of innovations, was followed as a methodological framework in examining the subjective perspectives and perceptions of a number of participants interviewed in five case study farms in Iran.\ud \ud \ud In order to build an understanding of the causal links influencing the underlying concepts of adoption and diffusion of technology, qualitative analysis of interactions between agency and structure of five case study farms was conducted. This allowed for rich data collection within different contexts. In each case study, a number of respondents who had responsibilities for the adoption or diffusion of technology were interviewed. These case studies included poultry farms with a vertical supply chain, and semi-vertical and horizontal supply chains, across a mix of breeder and layer farms.\ud \ud \ud In presenting the findings of the study, and to aid the process of analysis, the use of tables summarising the related case evidence in emergent theory proved essential to demonstrate the depth and detail of the findings, rather than providing a summary of the statistics.\ud \ud \ud This research has contributed to theoretical knowledge, as the first study to outline the potential use of structuration theory as the meta-theory in halal poultry supply chain research, and to ongoing research by exploring some of the fundamental concepts within socially and technologically constructed social systems. Findings from the proposed technology acceptance model of this study could lead to further studies, generating ideas and recommendations for the effective implementation of technology in halal poultry production in local markets, and their preparation for integration into a global market.