Making connections: snapshots of chlamydial type III secretion systems in contact with host membranes
Saibil, Helen R.
Hayward, Richard D.
- Publisher: Elsevier
bcs | Bacterial Secretion Systems, Cell Membrane, Chlamydia, Endocytosis, Macromolecular Substances, Models, Biological
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens with an unusual biphasic lifecycle, which is underpinned by two bacterial forms of distinct structure and function. Bacterial entry and replication require a type III secretion system (T3SS), a widely conserved nanomachine responsible for the translocation of virulence effectors into host cells. Recent cell biology experiments supported by electron and cryo-electron tomography have provided fresh insights into Chlamydia-host interactions. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances, particularly the in situ analysis of T3SSs in contact with host membranes during chlamydial entry and intracellular replication, and the role of the host rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) at the recently described intracellular 'pathogen synapse'.