The Cytotoxic Effects of Malondialdehyde on Human Lung Fibroblast Cells

Doctoral thesis English OPEN
Yates, S A

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic product of lipid peroxidation which has also been found at elevated levels in smokers. MDA reacts with nucleic acid bases to form pyrimidopurinone DNA adducts, of which 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimidol[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) is the most abundant and has been linked to smoking. Mutations in the TP53 tumour suppressor gene are associated with half of all cancers. This research applied a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the toxic effects of MDA on the human lung fibroblasts MRC5, which have an intact p53 response, and their SV40 transformed counterpart, MRC5 SV2, which have a sequestered p53 response.\ud Both cell lines were treated with MDA (0-1000 µM) for 24 and 48 h and subjected to a variety of analyses to examine cell proliferation, cell viability, cellular and nuclear morphology, apoptosis, p53 protein expression, DNA topography and M1dG adduct detection. For the first time, mutation sequencing of the 5’ untranslated region (UTR) of the TP53 gene in response to MDA treatment was carried out.\ud The main findings were that both cell lines showed reduced proliferation and viability with increasing concentrations of MDA, the cell surface and nuclear morphology were altered, and levels of apoptosis and p53 protein expression appeared to increase. A LC MS-MS method for detection of M1dG adducts was developed and adducts were detected in CT-DNA treated with MDA in a dose-dependent manner. DNA appeared to become more fragmented with increasing MDA concentration, and the number of mutations in the 5’ UTR region of the TP53 gene also increased. The majority of mutations observed were insertions, compared to lung cancer mutation data where the majority were G to T transversions. This was unexpected, suggesting that tobacco smoke compounds have a different role in mutagenesis than endogenous lipid peroxidation. Thus, MDA has been found to have a clear effect on human lung fibroblasts at both the cellular and DNA level.
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