Microbial biodeterioration of outdoor stone monuments: Assessment methods and control strategies

Doctoral thesis English OPEN
Scheerer, Stefanie
  • Subject: QR

Biodeterioration is the least understood decay mechanisms of outdoor stone monuments. Microbial colonisation is largely determined by the properties of the stone and environmental conditions. The literature on microorganisms on outdoor stone monuments and their decay mechanisms was reviewed. For the assessment and quantification of microbial deterioration, methods that can be carried out by cultural heritage conservators with limited microbiological skills were selected and adjusted for the application on outdoor stone monuments. To this end, the total biomass was quantified by a protein assay (Folin-Lowry method), its phototrophic contribution through chlorophyll a absorbance and the amount of extracellular substances (EPS) were assessed by carbohydrate quantification (phenol method). Microbial activity was measured through two different enzyme assays: fluorescein diacetate cleavage and dehydrogenase activity (INT reduction). In order to develop a long-term monitoring strategy, these parameters were tested in the morning (8 am) and in the afternoon (4 pm) on biofilms from a sunny and a shady sampling site on a limestone wall in the south of Mexico. The experiments were performed in the dry season and the rainy season. Changes in biofilm composition and activity during the day were very small, while seasonal changes were more pronounced. The largest differences could be seen in samples from the different sampling sites (sun and shade), where the microbial population had established over years of distinct environmental conditions. Variations in biofilm composition and activity exceeding such natural variation may indicate the necessity for an antimicrobial treatment. The choice of an antimicrobial agent is difficult and the ideal treatment does not exist. Of the various chemical antimicrobial agents tested (Mergal K14, Parmetol DF12, Troysan S97, Preventol R50 hydrogen peroxide and ethanol) on microbial biofilms on stone, ethanol (70%) was the most effective, as revealed by ATP measurements. A flexible, non-invasive in vivo system, employing the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, was developed to assess sub-lethal effects of antimicrobial treatments and to test combined treatments for synergy. Various biocides and ultrasound (267 kHz, 20 kHz), alone and in combination, were tested for their effect on V. fischeri (Mergal K14, Parmetol DF12, Troysan S97, Preventol R50 hydrogen peroxide and ethanol) and a microbial biofilm on stone (Troysan S97, Preventol R50 and ethanol). The tests did not reveal synergistic effects however, a systematic, comprehensive study on chemical and/or physical methods might reveal an innovative approach towards a more environmentally friendly microbial eradication method for outdoor stone monuments. Long-term monitoring of the composition and activity of a microbial biofilm may provide data to determine if an antimicrobial treatment is necessary. If an antimicrobial intervention cannot be avoided, low-toxic substances, such as ethanol, should be considered first. For the evaluation of the success of an antimicrobial treatment, ATP measurement has proven to be a reliable and simple method that does not require specialised skills.
  • References (17)
    17 references, page 1 of 2

    1996. Aberdeen granite buildings: a study of soiling and decay. In: Processes of Urban Stone Decay (Eds. Smith, P.J.; Warke; P.A.), Donhead Publishing, London, UK, 66-77 401. Urzi,C. 2004. Microbial deterioration of rocks and marble monuments in Mediterranean Basin: A review. Corrosion Reviews. 22: 441-457 402. Urzi, C.; La Cono, V De Leo, F.; Donat, P.; 2003. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to study biodeterioration in cultural heritage, In: Molecular Biology and Cultural Heritage (Ed. Saiz-Jimenez, C.). Swets & Zeitlinger B. V., Lisse, The Netherlands, 5 5 -6 0 403. Urzi, C.; Brusetti, L.; Salamone, P.; Sorlini, C.; Stackebrandt, E.; Daffonchio, D.

    2001. Biodiversity of Geodermatophilaceae isolated from altered stones and monuments in the Mediterranean basin. Environmental Microbiology. 3: 471- 479 404. Urzi, C.; De Leo, F. 2001. Sampling with adhesive tape strips: an easy and rapid method to monitor microbial colonization on monument surfaces, Journal of Microbiological Methods. 44: 1-11 405. Urzi, C.; de Leo, F.; de How, S.; Sterflinger, K. 2000. Recent advances in the molecular biology and ecophysiology of meristematic stone-inhabiting fungi. In: Of Microbes and Art. The role of microbial communities in the degradation and protection of cultural heritage (Eds. Ciferri, O.; Tiano, P.; Mastromei, G.), Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publisher. New York, USA, 3-21 406. Urzi, C.; De Leo, F.; Lo Passo, C.; Criseo, G. 1999. Intra-specific diversity of Aureobasidium pullulans strains isolated from rocks and other habitats assessed by physiological methods and by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Journal of Microbiological Methods. 36: 95-105 407. Urzi, C.; Realini, M. 1998. Colour changes of Noto|s calcareous sandstone as related to its colonisation by microorganisms, International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 42: 45-54 408. Urzi, C.; Krumbein, W. E. 1994. Microbiological impacts on cultural heritage, In Durability and change. The science, responsibility, and cost of sustaining cultural heritage. Report of the Dahlem Workshop 6 - 1 1 December 1992.

    Environmental science research report 15 (Ed. Krumbein, W. E.) John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. 343-368 409. Urzi, C. 1993. Interactions of some microbial communities in the biodeterioration of marble and limestone. In: Trends in Microbiology (Eds.

    Guerrero, R.; Pedros-Alio, C.) Spanish Society for Microbiology, 667-672 410. Vails del Barrio, S.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Pradell, T.; Vendrell-Saz, M. 2002. The red-orange patina developed on a monumental dolostone. Engineering Geology. 63: 31-38 411. Van der Molen, J.M.; Garty, J.; Aardema, B.W. Krumbein, W.E. 1980. Growth control of algae and cyanobacteria on historical monuments by a mobile UV unit (MUVU). Studies in Conservation. 25: 7 1 -7 7 412. Van Dienst, E. 1985. Some remarks on the Conservation of W et Archaeological Leather. Studies in Conservation. 30: 86-92 413. Vickers, R.S.; Dolphin, L.T. 1975. A communication on the archaeological radar experiment at Chaco Cannyon, New Mexico. MASCA Newsletter, 11: 3 414. Villamiel, M.; de Jong, P. 2000. Inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus in trypticase soy broth and total bacteria in milk by continuous-flow ultrasonic treatment and conventional heating. Journal of Food Engineering. 45: 171-179 415. Villanueva, L.; Navarrete, L.; Urmeneta, L.; White, D.C.; Guerrero, R. 2004.

    Combined phospholipid biomarker-16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial diversity and physiological status in an intertidal microbial mat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70: 6920- 6926 416. Visick, K.L.; Ruby, E.G. 1998. The Periplasmic, Group III Catalase of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal symbiotic competence and is induced both by oxidative stress and by approach to stationary phase. Journal of Bacteriology.

    180: 2087-209 3 418. Vladimirov, V. 2005. Non-destructive X-ray analysis and petrophysical evaluation of a Cybele votive plaque. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B. 239: 122-126 419. Von Mersi, K.; Schinner, F. 1990. An improved and accurate method for determining the dehydrogenase activity of soils with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 11: 216-220 420. Wan, J.K.S.; Depew, M.C. 1995. Effects of NOx Exposure on Paper: The Role of Free Radicals. Journal of Pulp & Paper Science. 22: J174-J177 421. Wanandy, S.; Brouwer, N.; Liu, Q.; Mahon, A.; Cork, S.; Karuso, P.; Vemulpad, S.; Jamie, J. 2005. Optimisation of the fluorescein diacetate antibacterial assay.

    Journal of Microbiological Methods. 60: 21-30 423. Wardley-Smith, B.; White, D.C. 1975. The continuous culture of luminous bacteria: A luminostat. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 39: 337-343 424. Warke, P.A.; Smith, B.J.; Magee, R.W. 1996. Thermal response characteristics of stone: Implications for weathering of soiled surfaces in urban environments.

    Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 21: 295-306 425. Warscheid, T. 2003. The evaluation of biodeterioration processes on cultural objects and approaches for their effective control. In: Art, Biology and Conservation: Biodeterioration of Works of Art. (Eds. Koestler, R.J.; Koestler, V.H.; Charola, A.E.; Nieto-Fernandez, F.E.) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA, 14-27 426. Warscheid, T.; Braams, J. 2000. Biodeterioration of stone: a review, International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 46: 343-368 428. Warscheid, T.; Becker, T.W.; Resende, M.A. 1996. Biodeterioration of Stone: A comparison of (sub-) tropical and moderate climate zones. In: Second LABS (Latin American Biodeterioration Symposium, Gramado (Brazil)), 6 3 -6 4 429. Warscheid, T. 1996a. Impacts of microbial biofilms in the deterioration of inorganic building materials and their relevance for the conservation practice.

    Internationale Zeitschrift fur Bauinstandsetzen. 2: 493-503 430. Warscheid, T. 1996b. Biodeterioration of stone: Detection, Quantification and Evaluation. The Biodeterioration Society Monographs 133 (Ed. Kreysen, Gerhard), 10th International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation Symposium, Universitat Hamburg, Germany, September 1996, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Frankfurt, Germany, 115-120 431. Warscheid, T.; Petersen, K.; Krumbein, W .E. 1995. Effect of cleaning on the distribution of microorganisms on rock surfaces. Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 9 (Eds. Bousher, A.; Chandra, M.; Edyvean, R.) Institute of Chemical Engineering, Rugby, UK, 455-460 432. Warscheid, T.; Oeltig, M.; Krumbein, W .E. 1991. Physico-chemical aspects of biodeterioration processes on rocks with special regard on organic pollution.

    International Biodeterioration. 28: 37-48 433. Warscheid, T.; Petersen, K.; Krumbein, W .E. 1990. A rapid method to demonstrate and evaluate microbial activity on decaying sandstone. Studies in Conservation. 35:137-147 434. Warscheid, T.; Petersen, K.; Krumbein, W .E. 1988. Effect of cleaning on the distribution of microorganisms on rock surfaces. In: Biodeterioration 7 (Eds.

  • Metrics
    0
    views in OpenAIRE
    0
    views in local repository
    1,045
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    Online Research @ Cardiff - IRUS-UK 0 1,045
Share - Bookmark