International benchmarking: Policy responses to biodiversity and climate change in OECD countries

Article English OPEN
Bark, R ; Crabot, J (2016)
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Responding to global environmental issues like biodiversity loss and climate change challenge national governments and intergovernmental bodies. A conventional response has been to set targets. Yet to achieve targets, governments must implement effective policies. Indicators that track policy implementation could provide information on individual country progress towards targets and for international benchmarking. We take up a recommendation from Convention on Biological Diversity mandated experts to develop a policy indicator(s) for biodiversity. This expert group identified four indicator attributes: identification, establishment, strengthening and assessment. We review biodiversity (and climate change) policies implemented in the period 1952–2012 in 54 nations using an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) database. We find: the number of countries implementing biodiversity policies increased steadily until the end of the 2000s (identification); evidence of continuous innovation in the types of policy instruments implemented (establishment); and evidence of policy revision and shifts in jurisdiction (strengthening). To overcome a lack of data to evaluate policy effectiveness (assessment) we suggest improvements in data collection and the possibility to combine the OECD database with other databases.
  • References (21)
    21 references, page 1 of 3

    Bräuer, I., Müssner, R., Marsden, K., Oosterhuis, F., Rayment, M., Miller, C., Dodoková, A., 2006. The use of market incentives to preserve biodiversity. Final Report.A project under the Framework contract for economic analysis ENV.G.1/FRA/2004/0081. Canberra, <>.

    Butchart, S.H.M., et al., 2010. Global biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Sciences, Vol 328, 1164-1168.

    Carson, R., 1962. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, New York.

    Clough, P., 2000.Encouraging private biodiversity - Incentives for biodiversity conservation on private land. Treasury Working Paper Series 00/25, New Zealand.

    Dominique, K.C., Malik, A.A., Remoquillo-Jenni, V. 2013. International benchmarking: Politics and policy1. Science and Public Policy, 40: 504-513. Doi: 10.1093/scipol/scs128

    EEA, 2014. Digest of EEA indicators 2014. EEA Technical report No 8/2014. European Environment Agency. ISSN 1725-2237.

    Hampe, A., Petit, R.J., 2005. Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecology Letters, 8(5): 461-467.

    Heller, N.E., Zavaleta, E.S., 2009. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation, 142: 14-32.

    Hill, R., Dyer, G.A., Lozada-Ellison, L.-M., Gimona, A., Martin-Ortega, J., Munoz-Rojas, J., Gordon, I.J., 2015. A social-ecological systems analysis of impediments to delivery of the Aichi 2020 Targets and potentially more effective pathways to the conservation of biodiversity, Global Environmental Change, 22-34.

    Lutsey, N., Sperling, D. 2008. A -up climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy, 36(2): 673-685.

  • Metrics
    views in OpenAIRE
    views in local repository
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    White Rose Research Online - IRUS-UK 0 15
Share - Bookmark