Salivary pellicles equalise surfaces’ charges and modulate the virulence of Candida albicans biofilm

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Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley ; Wilson, Melanie ; Lewis, Michael ; Williams, David ; Senna, Plínio Mendes ; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha ; Silva, Wander José da (2016)
  • Publisher: Elsevier BV
  • Journal: Archives of Oral Biology (issn: 0003-9969, vol: 66, pp: 129-140)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.02.016
  • Subject: Cell Biology | Dentistry(all) | Otorhinolaryngology
    mesheuropmc: biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition

Numerous environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of Candida biofilms and an uderstanding of these is necessary for appropriate clinical management.\ud Aims: To investigate the role of material type, pellicle and stage of biofilm development on the viability,\ud bioactivity, virulence and structure of C. albicans biofilms.\ud Methods: The surface roughness (SR) and surface free energy (SFE) of acrylic and titanium discs was\ud measured. Pellicles of saliva, or saliva supplemented with plasma, were formed on acrylic and titanium\ud discs. Candida albicans biofilms were then generated for 1.5 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The cell viability in\ud biofilms was analysed by culture, whilst DNA concentration and the expression of Candida virulence\ud genes (ALS1, ALS3 and HWP1) were evaluated using qPCR. Biofilm metabolic activity was determined\ud using XTT reduction assay, and biofilm structure analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).\ud Results: Whilst the SR of acrylic and titanium did not significantly differ, the saliva with plasma pellicle\ud increased significantly the total SFE of both surface. The number of viable microorganisms and DNA\ud concentration increased with biofilm development, not differing within materials and pellicles. Biofilms\ud developed on saliva with plasma pellicle surfaces had significantly higher activity after 24 h and this was\ud accompanied with higher expression of virulence genes at all periods.\ud Conclusion: Induction of C. albicans virulence occurs with the presence of plasma proteins in pellicles,\ud throughout biofilm growth. To mitigate such effects, reduction of increased plasmatic exudate, related to\ud chronic inflammatory response, could aid the management of candidal biofilm-related infections.
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