Human rights treaties and foreign surveillance: privacy in the digital age

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Milanovic, Marko (2015)
  • Publisher: Harvard Law School
  • References (51)
    51 references, page 1 of 6

    10. Compare Clapper v. Amnesty Int'l, 133 S. Ct. 1138 (2013) (holding by 5 votes to 4 that a real likelihood that individuals would be subjected to surveillance measures, rather than proof that such measures were actually taken, was not sufficient for standing, which could not be speculative) with Klass v. Germany (Judgment), App. No. 5029/71, 28 Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser. A) (1978), available at http://hudoc. (allowing for precisely this kind of speculative standing).

    11. See James Ball, Leaked Memos Reveal GCHQ Efforts to Keep Mass Surveillance Secret, The Guardian (Oct. 25, 2013, 1:45 PM),

    12. Big Brother Watch v. United Kingdom (Communicated Case), App. No. 58170/13, Eur. Ct. H.R. (2013). Similarly, a domestic U.K. case was filed before the Investigatory Powers Tribunal by Privacy International. See Privacy International Files Legal Challenge Against UK Government Over Mass Surveillance Programmes, Privacy Int'l (July 8, 2013), privacy-international-files-legal-challenge-against-uk-government-over-mass.

    13. Colum Lynch et al., Exclusive: Germany, Brazil Turn to U.N. to Restrain American Spies, Foreign Policy (Oct. 24, 2013, 4:18 PM), germany_brazil_turn_to_un_to_restrain_american_spies. United Nations General Assembly, Third Comm., The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/68/L.45 (Nov. 1, 2013).

    14. Colum Lynch, Exclusive: Inside America's Plan to Kill Online Privacy Rights Everywhere, Foreign Policy (Nov. 20, 2013, 1:10 PM), americas_plan_to_kill_online_privacy_rights_everywhere.

    15. United Nations General Assembly, Third Comm., The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/68/L.45/Rev.1 (Nov. 1, 2013).

    16. Resolution on the Right to Privacy in the Digital Age, G.A. Res 68/167, U.N. Doc. A/RES/68/ 167 (Jan. 21, 2014).

    27. See, e.g., David Cole, We Are All Foreigners: NSA Spying and the Rights of Others, Just Security (Oct. 29, 2013, 12:48 PM),; Kenneth Roth, NSA: Our Analogue Spying Laws Must Catch Up with the Digital Era, The Guardian (Nov. 10, 2013),

    28. Orin Kerr, A Reply to David Cole on Rights of Foreigners Abroad, Lawfare (Nov. 2, 2013, 1:54 AM),

    29. The Fourth Amendment, for its part, speaks of the “people.” U.S. Const. amend. IV.

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