Non-equilibrium polymeric complex fluids

0044 English OPEN
Willmer, D;
(2011)

Complex fluids are commercially- and industrially-important materials which exhibit ordering on scales much larger than atomic. Their usage is typically in non-equilibrium conditions, however traditional methods for measuring rheology are not appropriate for measuring s... View more
  • References (149)
    149 references, page 1 of 15

    1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 Thesis Layout and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    2 On the Physics and Rheology of Polymers in Solution 5 2.1 Introduction to Polymeric Complex Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Theoretical and Experimental Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.1 Maxwellian Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2.2 Cole-Cole Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.3 Protocol for bulk rheology experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.1 The Reptation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.3.2 'Living' Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.4 The structure and properties of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) . . . . . . . . 30 2.4.1 Hydration and Solvation of PEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.4.2 The conformation of a PEO molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4.3 Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.5 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    3 Optical Tweezers and their use with Complex Fluids 40 3.1 The Background and Physics of Optical Tweezers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.8.3.6 Jaguar C-17 with NaCl and Increasing Surfactant Concentration 140 4.8.3.7 Jaguar Charge Density Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 4.9 Non-equilibrium Optical Tweezer experiment on a model micelle system . 144 4.10 Non-equilibrium Optical Tweezer experiment on a micelle and polymer system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 4.11 Experimental Study on the Dilution of a prototype Hair Conditioner using Optical Tweezers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 4.12 Conclusions and Further Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

    5 Bootstrap Droplets 153 5.1 Introduction and Chapter Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 5.1.1 Droplet Evaporation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 5.2 Experimental Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5.2.1 Drop Shape Analysis (DSA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5.2.2 Optical Coherence Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.2.3 Interferometric Surface Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 5.2.4 Particle Tracking Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 5.2.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 5.2.6 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 5.3 Experimental Data of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) Droplets . . . . . . . . 160 5.3.1 Results from 100,000 MW PEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 5.3.2 Results from 20,000 MW PEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 5.3.3 Results from 8,000 MW PEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 5.3.4 Results from 3,350 MW PEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 5.3.5 Results from 300k MW PEO Droplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 5.3.6 Other Droplet Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 5.4 Conclusions and Further Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

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    [14] S. Bontha, A.V. Kabanov, and T.K Bronich. Polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores for delivery of anticancer drugs. Journal of Controlled Release, 114(2): 163 - 174, 2006.

    [15] M. Grmela and H.C. Öttinger. Dynamics and thermodynamics of complex fluids. i. development of a general formalism. Phys. Rev. E, 56:6620 - 6632, 1997.

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