Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation
Jardine, Alan G.
Mark, Patrick B.
- Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
mesheuropmc: surgical procedures, operative
Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who would otherwise require dialysis. Patients with ESRD are at dramatically increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared to the general population. As well as improving quality of life, successful transplantation accords major benefits by reducing cardiovascular risk in these patients. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death with a functioning graft and therefore is a leading cause of graft failure. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and current evidence for improving cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and pre-existing ischaemic heart disease are all highly prevalent in this group. In addition, kidney transplant recipients exhibit a number of risk factors associated with pre-existing renal disease. Furthermore, complications specific to transplantation may ensue includingreduced graft function, side effects of immunosuppression and post transplantation diabetes mellitus. Strategies to improve cardiovascular\ud outcomes post transplantation may include pharmacological intervention including lipid lowering or antihypertensive therapy, optimisation of graft function, lifestyle intervention and personalising immunosuppression to the\ud individual patients risk profile.