Introduction: Reappraising early modern radicals and radicalism
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Hessayon, Ariel; Finnegan, David;
Subject: V214 | V340
Radical was originally a word relating to a root or roots which, by the early modern period, was used particularly in philosophy, astrology and philology. Hence radical moisture (‘humidum radicale’) was understood to be the ‘natural moysture’ or ‘fundamental juyce of th... View more
2 Jeremy Bentham, 'radical reform Bill' and 'radicalism not dangerous', in J. Bowring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham (11 vols, Edinburgh, 1838-43), 3, pp. 559, 560, 599; C. Condren, 'Radicals, Conservatives and Moderates in early modern political thought: a case of sandwich islands syndrome', History of Political Thought, 10 (1989): pp. 526-33; C. Condren, The Politics of Language in Seventeenth-Century England (Basingstoke, 1994), pp. 155-8.
3 J.C.D. Clark, 'Religion and the origins of radicalism in nineteenth-century Britain', in G. Burgess and M. Festenstein (eds), English Radicalism, 1550-1850 (Cambridge, 2007), p. 241.
4 Burgess, 'Matter of Context', 2; Burgess, 'Introduction', pp. 8-9; Burgess, 'radicalism and the english revolution', p. 63.
5 C. Condren, 'Afterword: Radicalism Revisited', in Burgess and Festenstein (eds), English Radicalism, pp. 311-13; cf. J. Holstun, Ehud's Dagger. Class Struggle in the English Revolution (London and New York, 2002), pp. 22-4.
9 Cf. C. hill, The Experience of Defeat. Milton and Some Contemporaries (london, 1984), p. 26; N. McDowell, 'Writing the Literary and Cultural History of Radicalism in the English Revolution', in Caricchio and Tarantino (eds) Cromohs Virtual Seminars, 1, http:// www.cromohs.unifi.it/seminari/mcdowell.html; Burgess, 'Introduction', pp. 13-14.
10 g. gooch, The History of English Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1898), pp. 123-38, 150, 157.
11 Burgess, 'Matter of Context', 4; cf. T. Cooper, 'Reassessing the Radicals', HJ, 50 (2007): pp. 247-52.
12 Quoted in Clark, 'Religion and origins of radicalism', p. 267; John Stuart Mill, quoted in F. Rosen, 'Jeremy Bentham's Radicalism', in Burgess and Festenstein (eds),
19 e. Bittner, 'radicalism and the organization of radical movements', American Sociological Review, 28 (1963): pp. 928-40; E. Bittner, 'Radicalism', in D. Sills (ed.), International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (17 vols, New York, 1968), 13, pp. 294-300.