Shame if you do, Shame if you don't: Women's experiences of infant feeding

Article English OPEN
Thomson, Gill ; Esbich-Burton, Katherine ; Flacking, Renee (2014)
  • Publisher: Blackwell
  • Subject: B900

Emotions such as guilt and blame are frequently reported by non-breastfeeding mothers, and fear and humiliation is experienced by breastfeeding mothers when feeding in a public context. In this paper we present new insights into how shame-related affects, cognitions and actions are evident within breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women’s narratives of their experiences. As part of an evaluation study of the implementation of the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI) Community Award within two primary (community-based) care trusts in North West England, 63 women with varied infant feeding experiences took part in either a focus group or an individual semi-structured interview to explore their experiences, opinions and perceptions of infant feeding. Using a Framework Analysis approach and drawing on Lazare’s categories of shame, we consider how the nature of the event (infant feeding) and the vulnerability of the individual (mother) interact in the social context to create shame responses in some breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding mothers. Three key themes illustrate how shame is experienced and internalised through ‘exposure of women’s bodies and infant feeding methods’, ‘undermining and insufficient support’ and ‘perceptions of inadequate mothering’. The findings of this paper highlight how breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women may experience judgement and condemnation in interactions with health professionals as well as within community contexts, leading to feelings of failure, inadequacy and isolation. There is a need for strategies and support that address personal, cultural, ideological and structural constraints of infant feeding.
  • References (44)
    44 references, page 1 of 5

    American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012) Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 129, 827-841.

    Barbalet, J. M. (1999) Emotion, social theory, and social structure: a macrosociological approach. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

    Blum, L. (2000) At the breast: Ideologies of breastfeeding and motherhood in the contemporary United States. Beacon Press: Boston.

    Burns, E., Fenwick, J., Sheehan, A., & Schmied, V. (2013) Mining for liquid gold: midwifery language and practices associated with early breastfeeding support. Maternal and Child Nutrition 9, 57-73.

    Department of Health (2014) Maternity and early years: making a good start to family life. Retrieved from

    Dykes, F. (2005a) A critical ethnographic study of encounters between midwives and breastfeeding women in postnatal wards in England. Midwifery 21, 241-252.

    Dykes, F. (2005b) 'Supply' and 'demand': breastfeeding as labour. Social Science & Medicine 60, 2283-2293.

    Dykes, F. (2007) 'Resisting the gaze': the subversive nature of breastfeeding. In: Exploring the 'dirty' side of women's health (Eds M. Kirkham), Routledge: London.

    Dykes, F., & Flacking, R. (2010) Encouraging breastfeeding: a relational perspective. Early Human Development 86, 733-736.

    Dykes, F., Richardson-Foster, H., Crossland, N., & Thomson, G. (2012) 'Dancing on a thin line': evaluation of an infant feeding information team to implement the WHO code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes. Midwifery 28, 765-771.

  • Similar Research Results (2)
  • Metrics
    views in OpenAIRE
    views in local repository
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    Central Lancashire Online Knowledge - IRUS-UK 0 440
Share - Bookmark