publication . Thesis

Transition in the UK coastal bulk trades 1840-1914

Fenton, Roy;
Open Access English
  • Country: United Kingdom
Steam and screw propeller took a long time to displace sail in coastal bulk trades: 60 years compared with the 20 years needed for steam and the paddle to dominate coastal liner trades. As this thesis confirms, conquering the bulk trades was a much more difficult undertaking. To offset far greater capital and running costs, the developer of the steam bulk carrier could offer only that his steamer, largely independent of weather and tide, would carry significantly more cargo in a given period than a sailing vessel. This thesis demonstrates how, to fulfil this promise, many obstacles had to be overcome, including the high cost of iron hulls and steam engines, the ...
Medical Subject Headings: complex mixtures
free text keywords: economics
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