12 The French Cultural Center, popularly known as the Alliance Française, was established in 1990; its name then changed to the Center for Cultural and Linguistic Cooperation, and then the French Cultural Center of Cambodia in 1992. In 2011 it changed its name again to the Institut Français. Bophana Audio-Visual Resource Center was opened in 2005 under the directorship of French-Cambodian filmmaker Rithy Panh. Metahouse was founded by German film - maker Nico Mesterharm in 2007 and became a branch of the Goethe Institut in 2010. A Japan-Cambodia Cooperation Center was also established in 2004 with the purpose of improving human resource development, with less involvement in cultural development and the arts. Early gallery spaces and café-galleries include New Art Gallery (opened in 1994) and Two Fish Gallery Café (opened in 2006). Dana Langlois founded Java Café and Gallery (opened in 2000, re-named JavaArts after 2008) and managed Sala Artspace from 2006-2007.
13 Reyum itself was founded partially in response to a request by the curators of the first Fukuoka Triennale to see Cambodian contemporary art. Ingrid Muan (1964-2005), an American doctoral candidate in art history at Columbia University, had partnered with recently returned Cambodian-born Ly Daravuth (b. 1968), who had studied visual art and art history in Paris, to provide a venue to show the works prepared by the artists, many of whom were professors at the Royal University of Fine Arts (RUFA). After the first exhibition in 1998, titled Communication, the directors expanded the direction of the gallery space to drive a larger long-term project that would entail extensive research, documentation, exhibition, and publication of local cultural and aesthetic practices largely drawn from the realm of the vernacular. A critical analysis of Reyum's establishment and cultural project can be found in Thompson, “Forgetting to Remember Again,” Diacritics.
23 See for example Tara Shaw Jackson, “Heavy Skirt,” and Anne Elizabeth Moore, “Flowers Come From My Mouth,” in the exhibition catalog Leang Seckon: Heavy Skirt, 3-17. Leang's reputation as a prominent Cambodian contemporary artist grew as he participated in regional exchanges, such as 2+3+4 (Java Café and Gallery, Phnom Penh, 2006), Strategies from Within: an Exhibition of Vietnamese and Cambodian Contemporary Art Practices (Ke Center, Shanghai, 2008), and the Fukuoka Triennial (2009).
24 This work was exhibited in the Communication exhibition at Reyum in 1998. However, like many artists of that generation who worked with Ingrid Muan and Ly Daravuth, other career or family demands have led to alternative commercial paths for art-making, and very few have sustained independent artistic practices or exhibited in venues for and international circuits of contemporary art. This is revealing of the establishment of discursive and market mechanisms that enabled artists to gain purchase on non-ASEAN or states-sponsored cultural exchange-related international exhibition circuits after many artists from the 1990s generation had already withdrawn from pursuing publicly-exhibited artistic practice as a career path. An image of this work can be found at “Communication: Photo Gallery,” Reyum Institute of Arts and Culture, http://www.reyum.org/exhibitions/exhibit1/exhibit.html.
25 An image of this work can be found at “Communication: Photo Gallery,” Reyum Institute of Arts and Culture, http://www.reyum.org/exhibitions/exhibit1/exhibit.html.
49 A more extensive biography can be found in Svay Ken, Painted Stories.
50 His first exhibition in Cambodia took place at the New Art Gallery in 1994. Subsequently his paintings were ex - hibited in local group shows such as The Legacy of Absence (Reyum, Phnom Penh, 2000), Visions of the Future (Reyum, Phnom Penh, 2002), and Sharing Knowledge (Bophana Audiovisual Resource Center, Phnom Penh, 2008). Internationally he gained exposure through the First Fukuoka Triennale, Japan (1999) and Forever Until Now (10 Chancery Lane Gallery, Hong Kong, 2008).
51 See Svay Ken: Sharing Knowledge.
Pich.” Sopheap Pich: Sculptures 2004-2013. New York: Tyler Rollins Fine Arts, 2013.