The structure of the Au(111)/methylthiolate interface : new insights from near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray standing waves
Jones, R. G.
Woodruff, D. P.
- Publisher: American Institute of Physics
The local structure of the Au(111)([square root of]3×[square root of]3)R30°-methylthiolate surface phase has been investigated by S K-edge near-edge s-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) both experimentally and theoretically and by experimental normal-incidence x-ray standing waves (NIXSW) at both the C and S atomic sites. NEXAFS shows not only excitation into the intramolecular sigma* S–C resonance but also into a sigma* S–Au orbital perpendicular to the surface, clearly identifying the local S headgroup site as atop a Au atom. Simulations show that it is not possible, however, to distinguish between the two possible adatom reconstruction models; a single thiolate species atop a hollow-site Au adatom or a dithiolate moiety comprising two thiolate species bonded to a bridge-bonded Au adatom. Within this dithiolate moiety a second sigma* S–Au orbital that lies near parallel to the surface has a higher energy that overlaps that of the sigma* S–C resonance. The new NIXSW data show the S–C bond to be tilted by 61° relative to the surface normal, with a preferred azimuthal orientation in <211>, corresponding to the intermolecular nearest-neighbor directions. This azimuthal orientation is consistent with the thiolate being atop a hollow-site Au adatom, but not consistent with the originally proposed Au-adatom-dithiolate moiety. However, internal conformational changes within this species could, perhaps, render this model also consistent with the experimental data.