Wave envelopes with second-order spatiotemporal dispersion:\ud II. Modulational instabilities and dark Kerr solitons

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Christian, J M ; McDonald, G S ; Hodgkinson, T F ; Chamorro-Posada, P

A simple scalar model for describing spatiotemporal dispersion of pulses, beyond the classic “slowly-varying envelopes + Galilean boost” approach, is studied. The governing equation has a cubic nonlinearity and we focus here mainly on contexts with normal group-velocity dispersion. A complete analysis of continuous waves is reported, including their dispersion relations and modulational instability characteristics. We also present a detailed derivation of exact analytical dark solitons, obtained by combining direct-integration methods with geometrical transformations. Classic results from conventional pulse theory are recovered as-ymptotically from the spatiotemporal formulation. Numerical simulations test new theoretical predictions for modulational instability, and examine the robustness of spatiotemporal dark solitons against perturbations to their local pulse shape.
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