Study on Doping Prevention: A map of Legal, Regulatory and Prevention Practice Provisions in EU 28
Backhouse, SH; Collins, C; Defoort, Y; McNamee, M; Parkinson, A; Sauer, M; Brissonneau, C; Christensen, A; Dikic, N; Hauw, D; Horta, L; McVeigh, J; Petrou, M; Simon, P;
Publisher: European Commission
Historically, anti-doping efforts have focused on the detection and deterrence of doping in elite and competitive sport. There is, however, a growing concern that doping is occurring outside the organised sporting system; giving rise to the belief that the misuse of dop... View more
2. Since the 1989 Council of Europe's Anti-Doping Convention and the establishment of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999, there have been several attempts to harmonise anti-doping policy and practice. This has culminated in the 3rd revision of the World Anti-Doping Code (Code) that will be come into effect on January 1 2015, and will be implemented largely through NADOs in cooperation with other agencies and organizations.
3. In 2011, the European Commission brought together a Group of Experts (GoE) to draft Recommendations on Doping in Recreational Sport (DRS). In their report the GoE noted that no systematic study on current knowledge and practice in relation to the prevention of doping in recreational sport existed.
4. The aim of this Study was to develop the evidence-base for policies designed to combat doping in recreational sport. The evidence was collected through information-gathering on the prevention of doping in recreational sport in the 28 EU Member States (MS). The study aims to promote and support the sharing of best practices in the EU regarding the fight against doping in recreational sport in various enumerated fields (EAC/2013/0617).
5. The study comprised three main groups: the Consortium; a High Level Expert Group (HLEG) of 14 members (NADO and non-NADO); and 29 Experts (NB: Belgium had two experts covering their respective communities) who coordinated the response on behalf of their respective MS.
6. The study comprised (i) the collection of primary data through a structured survey; and, (ii) secondary data through literature searches and website analysis. The research was granted ethics approval by Leeds Beckett University, UK.
7. With respect to the survey, half of the sample were NADO representatives, the remaining half were from the University sector, public authorities, sport or other organisations. A limitation of the study is the dependency upon the MS coordinators providing full and accurate information. .
8. The survey comprised five elements which sought information on the: (i) EU Member State coordinator organisation whom the expert represented; (ii) applicable legislation, regulations and political arrangements related to doping in recreational sport; (iii) the mission, purpose, role and involvement of the MS National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADO); (iv) identification of good practice on doping prevention in recreation sport in their MS; and, (v) expert opinions regarding doping in recreational sport and support for it. After distribution of the survey questionnaire, an iterative process of clarification and elaboration took place, often requiring multiple attempts in order to present a valid and as reliable picture assessment as possible of activity in each MS.
9. The HLEG met twice to critically review the initial findings, identify errors and omissions, and to agree a final set of recommendations. Particular attention was PART I - INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR ORGANISATION