5· Good counsel and the need for frankness ofspeech are major topics in Sir Thomas Elyot's The Boke named the Governour (London, 1531), printed eight times in the sixteenth century (especially in bk. 3, cha.ps. 28-30).' and in such best-sellers as Lord Berners's Golden Boke ofMarcus Aurelius (London, 1535), w~1ch was pnnted fifteen times; and William Baldwin's A Treatise ofMoral Philosophy (London, 1547), ~nnted seve~teen times. I discuss this topic in more detail in Elizabethan Rhetoric. See also John Guy, The Rhetonc of Counsel in Early Modern England," in Dale Hoak, ed., Tudor Political Culture (Cambridge, 1995), 292-310.
6. T. ~·Hanley, ed., Proceedings in the Parliaments ofElizabeth I, 3 vols. (Leicester, England, 1981-95). On the mcompleteness of the record, see Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments; Queen, Lords, and Commons IJJ9-I60I (Manchester, 1992), 8-9. ' 7· Sec, ~or example, the anonymous journal for 14 and 15 May 1572 (Proceedings, 1:319-26), which gives the long tntroductory speech ofThomas Wilbraham and then a terser report of the arguments and replies of the debate.
8. Ibid., 1:244.
9· Whereas reports of Bacon's introductory speeches record elaborate oratory, his replies to petitions are always reported as summaries of points made followed by answers to each point•, see, 6or examp1e, 1'b1'd., 1:42-43, 77-79, 127-28, 171-72, 199, 244-45· proverbs, see Elizabeth McCutcheon, Sir Nicholas Bacon's Grtat House Sententiat, English Littrary Renaissance Supplements (Amherst, Mass., 1977).
71. See text at nn. 55 and 56, above. For examples of proverbs used by Francis Knollys and Queen Elizabeth, see text at nn. 87 and u6, below.
72. John Brinsley, Ludus Littrarius, ed. E. T. Campagnac (Liverpool, 1917), 143-44, 175-76, 182-84; M. T. Crane, Framing Authority (Princeton, N.J., 1993), esp. 3-4, 7-9, 44, 49-52.
73· Cicero recommended the preparation of commonplaces, elaborate paragraphs on moral issues that could be inserted into a speech; De inventiont, 11.15·48-50. The commonplace, Hke the chreia, an elaboration of the meaning ofa smtentia, was among the forms ofcomposition described in one of the most popular textbooks ofsixteenth-century Europe, Aphthonius's Progymnasmata (London, 1575), sigs. M4v-06r.