Using Equalizers to Increase Data Rates in Organic Photonic Devices for Visible Light Communications Systems

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Haigh, Paul;
(2014)
  • Subject: H600

This thesis proposes to marry two separate technologies together. The first technology is that of visible light communications (VLC), and the second is small molecule and polymer organic photonic devices. These two technologies both offer outstanding potential in their ... View more
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    1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction to Visible Light Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3 Research Aims and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4 Original Contributions to Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5 List of Publications and Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.5.1 Peer Reviewed Journal Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.5.2 Peer Reviewed Conference Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.6 Thesis Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2 Principles of Organic Photonic Devices 21 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2 Review of Conventional Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3 Photon Generation and Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.3.1 Radiative Recombination of Electrons and Holes . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.3.2 Equivalent Model of the Light Emitting Diode . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.4 Photodetectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.5 Organic Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.5.1 Hybridization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.6 The Bulk Heterojunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    3 Principles of Visible Light Communications 45 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.2 Modulation Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.2.1 M-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.2.2 L-ary Pulse Position Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.2.3 Summary of Modulation Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.3 Equalization Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.3.1 Equalization as an Information Theory Problem . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.3.2 RC Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.3.3 Zero-Forcing Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.3.4 Adaptive Linear Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.3.5 Decision Feedback Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.3.6 Equalization as a Classification Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    4 Visible Light Communications with Organic Light Emitting Diodes 91 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.2 Communications Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.2.1 On-Off Keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4.2.2 Pulse Position Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4.3 Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

    6 Visible Light Communications with All Organic Optoelectronic Components 129 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 6.2 Organic Optoelectronic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 6.3 Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 6.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

    7 Visible Light Communications with Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes 139 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7.2 Production and Characterization of the PLEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 7.3 Experimental Test Setup and LMS Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 7.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

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