Data dredging, bias, or confounding

Article English OPEN
Smith, GD ; Ebrahim, S (2002)
  • References (12)
    12 references, page 1 of 2

    1 Band PR, Le ND, Fang R, Deschamps M. Carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects of cigarette smoke and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 2002;360:1044­9.

    2 Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer-collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58 515 women with breast cancer and 95 067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer 2002;87:1234­45.

    3 Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prev Med 1991;20:47­63.

    4 Beral V, Banks E, Reeves G. Evidence from randomised trials on the longterm effects of hormone replacement therapy. Lancet 2002;360:942­4.

    5 Peto R, Doll R, Buckley JD, Sporn MB. Can dietary beta­carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature 1981;290:201­8.

    6 Willett WC. Vitamin A and lung cancer. Nutrition Rev 1990;48:201­11.

    7 Alpha­Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1029­35.

    8 Khaw K­T, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, Wareham N, Oakes S, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC­Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. Lancet 2001;357:657­63.

    9 Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF heart protection study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high­risk individuals: a randomised placebo­controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:23­33.

    10 Macleod J, Davey Smith G, Heslop P, Metcalfe C, Carroll D, Hart C, et al. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease: empirical demonstration of bias in a prospective observational study of Scottish men. BMJ 2002;324:1247­51.

  • Metrics
    0
    views in OpenAIRE
    0
    views in local repository
    177
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    LSHTM Research Online - IRUS-UK 0 177
Share - Bookmark