An investigation into ion plating mechanisms and parameters
Ion plating is a fairly new and modern technique for\ud obtaining very adhesive films on any kind of surface and\ud substrate material. The development of electron gun evaporation sources created the possibility to deposit, with high rates, materials having high melting points like : Molybdenum, Tungsten and even Carbon. \ud A part of this work attempts to establish the kind of\ud particles which are involved in ion plating, especially the\ud energetic neutrals that have been considered not to play a\ud major role in the coating process. \ud For this purpose, the ions are separated from the neutrals\ud and their energy spectrums determined using theoretical\ud and experimental methods. The influence of process parameters upon the energies of the ions and neutrals is also studied. \ud Another part of this work is a parametric study of\ud the nucleation of ion plated thin films as compared to\ud the straight vacuum evaporated ones. The film-substrate\ud interface of ion plated films is also analysed and measured\ud attempting to clarify the processes that lead to the\ud formation of a deep grossed interface. \ud Finally a parametric study is carried out with the aim of producing improved film structures in a controlled\ud manner by varying the main process parameters such as :\ud pressure, bias voltage and ion current. The substrate\ud temperature is also considered. A physical model for removing the columnar structure is produced snd reported.