Seroprevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 amongst mothers and children in Malawi within the context of a systematic review and meta-analysis of HTLV seroprevalence in Africa

Article English OPEN
Fox, James M ; Mutalima, Nora ; Molyneux, Elizabeth ; Carpenter, Lucy M ; Taylor, Graham P ; Bland, Martin ; Newton, Robert ; Martin, Fabiola (2015)
  • Subject:
    mesheuropmc: viruses | hemic and lymphatic diseases | immune system diseases | virus diseases

OBJECTIVES: Human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 causes T cell leukaemia and myelopathy. Together with HTLV-2 it is endemic in some African nations. Sero- prevalence data from Malawi are scarce, with no reports on associated disease incidence. HTLV seroprevalence and type were tested in 418 healthy mothers from Malawi. In addition, we tested the sera of 534 children to investigate mother-to-child transmission. To provide context, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of HTLV seroprevalence in African women and children. METHODS: Stored samples from a previous childhood cancer and BBV study were analysed. ELISA was used for HTLV screening followed by immunoblot for confirmation and typing. Standard methods were used for the systematic review. RESULTS: HTLV seroprevalence was 2.6% (11/418) in mothers and 2.2% (12/534) in children. Three mothers carried HTLV-1 alone, seven had HTLV-2 and one was dually infected. Three children carried HTLV-1 alone, seven had HTLV-2 and two were dually infected. Only two corresponding mothers of the 12 HTLV positive children were HTLV positive. The systematic review included 66 studies of women and 13 of children conducted in 25 African countries. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1 varied from 0-17% and of HTLV-2 from 0-4%. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to findings from other studies in Africa, the seroprevalence of HTLV-2 was higher than that of HTLV-1 in Malawi and one of the highest for the African region. The lack of mother-child concordance suggests alternative sources of infection among children. Our data and analyses contribute to HTLV prevalence mapping in Africa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • References (98)
    98 references, page 1 of 10

    1. Martin F, Taylor GP, Jacobson S. Inflammatory manifestations of HTLV-1 and their therapeutic options. Exp Rev Clin Immunol 2014: 10: 1531-1546.

    2. Gessain A, Cassar O. Epidemiological Aspects and World Distribution of HTLV-1 Infection. Front Microbiol 2012: 3: 388.

    3. Roucoux DF, Murphy EL. The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II. AIDS Rev 2004: 6: 144-154.

    4. Chang YB, Kaidarova Z, Hindes D et al. Seroprevalence and demographic determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 infections among first-time blood donors-United States, 2000-2009. J Infect Dis 2014: 209: 523-531.

    5. Murphy EL, Wang B, Sacher RA et al. Respiratory and urinary tract infections, arthritis, and asthma associated with HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Emerg Infect Dis 2004: 10: 109-116.

    6. Biswas HH, Kaidarova Z, Garratty G et al. Increased allcause and cancer mortality in HTLV-II infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010: 54: 290-296.

    7. Araujo A, Hall WW. Human T-lymphotropic virus type II and neurological disease. Ann Neurol 2004: 56: 10-19.

    8. Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA, Minna JD, Gallo RC. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1980: 77: 7415-7419.

    9. Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, Miyoshi I, Golde D, Gallo RC. A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. Science 1982: 218: 571-573.

    10. Calattini S, Chevalier SA, Duprez R et al. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in Central Africa. Retrovirology 2005: 2: 30.

  • Metrics
    views in OpenAIRE
    views in local repository
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    White Rose Research Online - IRUS-UK 0 37
Share - Bookmark