Over the past century almost every ecosystem on Earth has come under the\ud influence of changes in atmospheric composition and climate caused by human activity.\ud Tropical forests are among the most productive and extensive ecosystems, and it has been\ud hypothesized ... View more
1Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation, School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK 2Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK 3Departamento de Silvicultura Tropical, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazoˆnia, Manaus, AM, Brasil 4Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus, AM, Brasil 5Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama 6Herbario Vargas, Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco, Peru´ 7Proyecto Flora del Peru´, Jard´ın Bota´nico de Missouri, Jaen, Cajamarca, Peru´ 8New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York, USA 9Winrock International, Corvallis, Oregon, USA Manuscript received 21 February 2001; revised 22 March 2001; accepted 22 June 2001; final version received 18 July 2001.
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