Appetite and Metabolic Responses to Acute and Moderate-Term Dairy Snack Consumption in Young People
In adolescents, an emergent body of evidence supports the hypothesis that milk-based dairy foods elicit anti-obesity properties, providing a modest protective effect against adiposity. To date, efforts to establish the underlying relationship between dairy and adiposity have identified several putative mechanisms. The least well studied of these mechanisms in adolescents is that of milk-based dairy consumption on appetite and metabolism, both of which exert the potential to impact on energy regulation and thus body composition. Accordingly, the overall aim of this thesis was to explore the impact of milk-based dairy consumption on subsequent appetite, feeding behaviour and resting metabolism in healthy young people. To accomplish this, four experimental studies were conducted. The initial experimental chapter of this thesis (chapter two) set out to establish the potential of an alternative methodological approach to quantify appetite- and metabolism-related peptide concentrations for use with paediatric populations. In this sense, chapter two examined the agreement and between-day test-retest reproducibility of several appetite-related peptides between fingertip-capillary and antecubital-venous blood sampling. The second experimental chapter (chapter three) compared dairy consumption patterns among a children (9-11 y) and adolescents (15-18 y), and was primarily designed to establish dairy food popularity (types, frequencies and amounts) and identify potential populations (sex & age) to target within the intervention-based sections of this thesis. The third (chapter four) and fourth (chapter five) experimental chapters of this thesis subsequently employed the findings of chapter two and three to determine the acute- (1-d) and moderate-term (28-d) influence of mid-morning milk consumption on feeding behaviour, metabolic and appetite-related responses in adolescent males (15-18 y).
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