Susceptibility in vitro of canine methicillin-resistant and -susceptible staphylococcal isolates to fusidic acid, chlorhexidine and miconazole: opportunities for topical therapy of canine superficial pyoderma
Clark, S. M.
- Publisher: Oxford University Press
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy,
(issn: 0305-7453, eissn: 1460-2091)
MRSA | Staphylococcus pseudintermedius | synergy | dogs | Original Research
Objectives Increasing multidrug resistance amongst canine pathogenic staphylococci has renewed interest in topical antibacterial therapy for skin infections in the context of responsible veterinary prescribing. We therefore determined the activity in vitro of three clinically relevant topical agents and synergism between two of them against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods The MICs of fusidic acid (n = 199), chlorhexidine (n = 198), miconazole (n = 198) and a 1:1 combination of miconazole/chlorhexidine (n = 198) were determined for canine isolates [50 MRSA and 49 methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), 50 MSSA and 50 methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP)] collected from the UK and Germany using an agar dilution method (CLSI VET01-A4). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated to assess the interaction of miconazole with chlorhexidine. Results MICs of each drug/combination were significantly (P < 0.0005) higher for S. aureus when compared with S. pseudintermedius. Most strains (n = 172) had an MIC of fusidic acid of ≤0.03 mg/L (MIC ≥64 mg/L, n = 5 MRSA). All strains had MICs of chlorhexidine of 0.5–4 mg/L, except for one MRSA (MIC = 8 mg/L). All but four strains had MICs of miconazole of 1–4 mg/L (MIC = 16 mg/L, n = 3; MIC = 256 mg/L, n = 1). Miconazole/chlorhexidine (1:1 ratio) had a synergistic effect against 49/50 MRSA, 31/50 MSSA, 12/49 MRSP and 23/49 MSSP. Conclusions Since the majority of these staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant isolates, had MICs that should be readily exceeded by topical skin application of these agents, their therapeutic efficacy for canine superficial pyoderma should be assessed. The synergistic interaction shown in vitro supports further clinical evaluation of miconazole/chlorhexidine combination therapy for staphylococcal infection.