i Jack London, The People of the Abyss (New York: Macmillan, 1903) ii H.V. Morton, The Nights of London (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., (1926) 1934), p. 16.
iii General Booth, In Darkest England and the Way Out ( New York: Garrett Press, 1970 (1890)), pp.
11-12. General Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, referred to the East End as 'darkest England' in response to the explorer H.M. Stanley's In Darkest Africa (1890).
iv 94 'China born aliens' appeared in London's Census returns for 1871; in 1921 this had increased to 711.
v Thomas Burke, Limehouse Nights (London: Daily Express Fiction Library edition, n.d. , p. 19.
vi Thomas Burke, The Wind and The Rain: A Book of Confessions (London, Thornton Butterworth Ltd., 1924), p. 136.
vii ibid., p. 86 viii Sax Rohmer (pseud. Arthur Ward). The earliest Fu-Manchu stories were printed as magazine serials in 1911 and 1912, the first novel in the series was The Mystery of Dr. Fu-Manchu (London: Methuen, 1913), published in the US as The Insidious Dr. Fu-Manchu (New York: McBride, 1913).
ix 'Opium Smoking: East End Dens', South London Advertiser, 28th December, obscurely dated cutting, 1910s. Chinatown File, Local History Archive, Tower Hamlets Central Library.
x Barbara Hodgson, Opium: A Portrait of the Heavenly Demon (London, San Francisco: Souvenir Press Ltd., 1999), p. 74.
xi The Best Stories of Thomas Burke, selected with a foreword by John Gawsworth, (London: Phoenix House, 1950), pp. 8-9.