Non-linear model predictive energy management strategies for stand-alone DC microgrids
Moradinegade Dizqah, Arash
Due to substantial generation and demand fluctuations in stand-alone green micro-grids, energy management strategies (EMSs) are becoming essential for the power\ud sharing purpose and regulating the microgrids voltage. The classical EMSs track the maximum power points (MPPs) of wind and PV branches independently and rely on batteries, as slack terminals, to absorb any possible excess energy. However, in order to protect batteries from being overcharged by realizing the constant current-constant voltage (IU) charging regime as well as to consider the wind turbine operational constraints, more flexible multivariable and non-linear strategies, equipped with a power curtailment feature, are necessary to control microgrids.\ud \ud This dissertation work comprises developing an EMS that dynamically optimises the operation of stand-alone dc microgrids, consisting of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and\ud battery branches, and coordinately manage all energy flows in order to achieve four control objectives: i) regulating dc bus voltage level of microgrids; ii) proportional power sharing between generators as a local droop control realization; iii) charging batteries as close to IU regime as possible; and iv) tracking MPPs of wind and PV branches during their normal operations.\ud \ud Non-linear model predictive control (NMPC) strategies are inherently multivariable and handle constraints and delays. In this thesis, the above mentioned EMS is developed as a NMPC strategy to extract the optimal control signals, which are duty cycles of three DC-DC converters and pitch angle of a wind turbine.\ud \ud Due to bimodal operation and discontinuous differential states of batteries, microgrids belong to the class of hybrid dynamical systems of non-Filippov type. This\ud dissertation work involves a mathematical approximation of stand-alone dc microgrids as complementarity systems (CSs) of Filippov type. The proposed model is used to develop NMPC strategies and to simulate microgrids using Modelica.\ud \ud As part of the modelling efforts, this dissertation work also proposes a novel algorithm to identify an accurate equivalent electrical circuit of PV modules using both\ud standard test condition (STC) and nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) information provided by manufacturers. Moreover, two separate stochastic models are presented for hourly wind speed and solar irradiance levels.
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