Higher moment models for risk and portfolio management
This thesis considers specific topics related to the dynamic modelling and management of risk, with a particular emphasis on the generation of asymmetric and fat tailed behavior observed in practise. Specifically, extensions to the dynamics of the popular GARCH model, to capture time variation in higher moments, are considered in the univariate and multivariate context, with a special focus on the Generalized Hyperbolic distribution. In Chapter 1, I consider the extension of univariate GARCH processes with higher moment dynamics based on the Autoregressive Conditional Density model of Hansen (1994), with conditional distribution the Generalized Hyperbolic. The value of such dynamics are analyzed in the context of risk management, and the question of ignoring them discussed. In Chapter 2, I review some popular multivariate GARCH models with a particular emphasis on the dynamic correlation model of Engle (2002), and alternative distributions such those from the Generalized Asymmetric Laplace of Kotz, Kozubowski, and Podgorski (2001). In Chapter 3, I propose a multivariate extension to the Autoregressive Conditional Density model via the independence framework of the Generalized Orthogonal GARCH models, providing the first feasible model for large dimensional multivariate modelling of time varying higher moments. A comprehensive out-of- sample risk and portfolio management application provides strong evidence of the improvement over non time varying higher moments. Finally, in Chapter 4, I consider the benefits of active investing when the benchmark index is not optimally weighted. I investigate advances in the definition and use of risk measures in portfolio allocation, and propose certain simple solutions to challenges arising in the optimization of these measures. Combining the models discussed in the previous chapters, within a fractional programming optimization framework and using a range of popular risk measures, a large scale out-of-sample portfolio application on the point in time constituents of the Dow Jones Industrial Average is presented and discussed, with clear implications for active investing and benchmark policy choice.