Mu˛ammad al-Damashqı ibn al-Jazarı, al-Nashr fı'l-qir √ t al-fiashr, ed. fiAlı Mu˛ammad alDabb fi (2 vols. Beirut: D r al-Kutub al-fiIlmiyya, n.d.); Shih b al-Dın al-Qas†al nı, La† √if alish r t li-funün al-qir √ t, ed. fiAbd al-∑abür Sh hın and ◊mir al-Sayyid fiUthm n (2 vols.
Cairo: Lajnat I˛y √ al-Tur th al-Isl mı, 1972). See also Paul Kahle, 'The Arabic Readers of the Qur√ n', Journal of Near Eastern Studies 8 (1949), pp. 65-71; W. Montgomery Watt, Introduction to the Qur√ n, Islamic Surveys (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997), p. 47. He described them as 'a special class of men, who specialised in memorising the sacred text'; Daniel A. Madigan, The Qur'an's Self-Image: Writing and Authority in Islam's Scripture (New York: Princeton, 2001), p. 25, p. 68; Marshall Hodgson's The Venture of Islam (3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), vol. 1, pp. 161f, p. 199, p. 209, p.
213, p. 215, p. 254; Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 99, who describes them as private students of religion who were without office and institutional means of support; cf. Julius Wellhausen, The Religio-Political Factions in Early Islam, ed. R.C. Ostle, trans. R.C. Ostle and S.M. Walzer (Amsterdam, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1975), pp. 1-15; Jan Retsö, The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), p. 49, p. 50, p. 51, p. 61. T. Nagel, art. 'Kurr√' in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edn (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1986), vol. 5, pp. 499-500; C. Melchert and A. Afsaruddin, art. 'Reciters of the Qur√ n', in J.D. McAuliffe (ed.), Encyclopaedia of the Qur√ n (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2004), vol. 4, pp. 386-93; cf. Fred Leemhuis' 'The Koran and its Exegesis: From Memorising to Learning' in Jan Wimmem Drijvers and Alasdair A.
MacDonald (eds), Centres of Learning: Learning and Location in Pre-Modern Europe and the Near East (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995), pp. 91-102. See also William Graham 'Qur√ n as Spoken Word: An Islamic Contribution to the Understanding of Scripture' in R. Martin (ed.), Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies (University of Arizona Press: 1985), pp. 23-40; Michael Cook, The Koran, A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 73f; F. Denny, 'Exegesis and Recitation: Their Development as Classical Forms of Qur'anic Piety' in Frank E. Reynolds and T. Ludwig (eds), Transitions and Transformations in the History of Religion: Essays in Honour of Joseph M. Kitagawa (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1980) pp. 91-123; F. Denny 'The Adab of Quran Recitation: Text and Context' in A. Johns (ed.), International Congress for the Study of the Qur'an (Canberra: Australian National University, 1982), pp. 143-60.
2 Muhammad Shaban, Islamic History: A New Interpretation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 23, pp. 50-1.
3 Earlier attempts to examine this issue included R. Brμnnow's examination of the political significance of the early Kh rijı movement within the context of the Umayyad dynasty. He did attempt to qualify the role of the qurr √ within this political movement; however, his views were summarily dismissed by Julius Wellhausen, who retained the historical background of readers as being skilled readers inspired in their politics by scripture. R. Brμnnow, Die Charidschiten unter der ersten Omayyaden (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1884); cf. Nagel, art. 'Kurr√', p. 499; cf. Wellhausen, The Religio-Political Factions in Early Islam, pp. 11-13. See also Wellhausen's The Arab Kingdom and its Fall, republished (London: Curzon, 1986); Reynold Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (London: Keganpaul International, 1998), pp. 209-11.
D r al-Kit b al-fiArabı, 1982), 'K. al-Magh zı', pp. 235-41. The episode is described in a number of early compilations, including the collection of magh zı texts ascribed to fiUrwa ibn Zubayr; the abridged sıra of Mu˛ammad ibn Is˛ q; the Kit b al-†ab q t al-kabır of Mu˛ammad ibn Safid; and the Kit b al-ta√rıkh of Khalıfa ibn Khayy †. For conversion of dates see Conversion Tables: Hijri-Anno Domini and Perpetual Calendars, prepared by Rana Y. Khoury, ed. Y. Ibish, K. Yasushi and Y. Khoury, Kyoto: Islamic Area Studies (Beirut: Tur th, 2002).
of Arabic Grammar' in Historiographia Linguistica 21:3 (1994), pp. 385-414. Jam l al-Dın al-Qif†ı, Inb h al-ruw t fial anb h al-nu˛ t, ed. Mu˛ammad Abü'l-Fa∂l Ibr hım (4 vols.
Cairo: D r al-Kutub al-Mißriyya, 1956), vol. 1, pp. 2-18. Abü'l-Barak t ibn al-Anb rı, Nuzhat al-alibb √ fı †abaq t al-udab √, ed. Ibr hım al-Samar √ı (al-Zarq √: Maktabat al-Man r, 1985), pp. 54-8; fiAbd al-W hid ibn fiAlı Abü ‡ayyib, Mar tib al-na˛wiyyın, ed. Mu˛ammad Abü'l-Fa∂l Ibr hım (Cairo: Maktabat Nah∂at Mißr, 1955), pp. 27-41. Abü Safiıd al-Sır fı, Akhb r al-na˛wiyyın al-Baßriyyın, ed. Mu˛ammad al-Bann (Cairo: D r al-Ifitiß m, 1985), pp.
63-5. Also, see the introduction to Mu˛ammad ibn al-˘asan al-Zubaydı, ‡abaq t alna˛wiyyın, ed. Mu˛ammad Abü'l-Fa∂l Ibr hım (Cairo: D r al-Mafi rif, 1973).