The flow metacognitions questionnaire (FMQ): A two factor model of flow metacognitions

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Wilson, Edith E. ; Moneta, Giovanni B. (2016)

This paper presents the development and validation of the Flow Metacognitions Questionnaire (FMQ) for measuring metacognitions of flow. Flow is a state of deep cognitive absorption that makes a person feel fully immersed in an activity. Flow metacognitions had been defined as people’s awareness of and beliefs on the flow state, its consequences, and strategies for achieving and maintaining flow (Wilson & Moneta, 2012). Exploratory factor analysis of the pilot FMQ yielded a two-component solution, based on a sample of 204 UK university students. The two FMQ sub-scales were labelled ‘Beliefs that Flow Fosters Achievement’ (FMQ-1) and ‘Confidence in Ability to Self-Regulate Flow’ (FMQ-2). Confirmatory factor analysis on a convenience sample of 159 international workers confirmed the two sub-scales of the final 12-item FMQ. The FMQ’s predictive validity was supported in a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Confidence in Ability to Self-Regulate Flow predicted the intensity of flow in work better than measures of maladaptive and adaptive metacognitions. It also predicted the frequency and percentage of time spent in flow in work above and beyond established measures of flow, highlighting the usefulness of the FMQ as a research tool.
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