The Effects of Two Planning Interventions on the Oral Health Behavior of Iranian Adolescents: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

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Pakpour, A.H. ; Gholami, M. ; Gellert, P. ; Yekaninejad, M.S. ; Dombrowski, S.U. ; Webb, T.L. (2016)
  • Publisher: Springer Verlag

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a planning intervention (specifying when, where, and how to act) and an implementation intention intervention (specifying the same in the format of an if-then plan) in increasing self-reported brushing in adolescents. \ud \ud METHODS: The study adopted a cluster randomized controlled trial design, and 1158 students in 48 schools were randomized to planning, implementation intention, or active control conditions. After baseline assessment, all participants received a leaflet containing information and recommendations on oral health and instructions on correct brushing behavior. After reading the leaflets, they were provided with a toothbrush and toothpaste plus a calendar in which to record their brushing. Participants in the planning condition and in the implementation intention condition also received instructions to form specific plans regarding brushing behavior. Self-reported brushing, perceived behavioral control, self-monitoring, intention, frequency of planning, oral health-related quality of life, and dental plaque and periodontal status were measured 1 and 6 months later. \ud \ud RESULTS: Both intervention conditions showed a significant improvement in the frequency of self-reported brushing, self-monitoring, frequency of planning, intention, perceived behavioral control, plaque index, periodontal health, and oral health-related quality of life compared to the control condition at both follow-ups. Comparing the two intervention conditions revealed that adolescents who received the implementation intention intervention had significantly greater improvement in the frequency of self-reported brushing, intention, frequency of planning, and periodontal health than those in planning condition. \ud \ud CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings suggest that forming implementation intentions as well as planning has the potential to increase dental self-reported brushing rates in adolescents, but that forming implementation intentions has the strongest impact on dental hygiene behavior and is, therefore, recommended. \ud \ud TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT02066987) https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02066987 .
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