Mycobacterial Purified Protein Derivatives Stimulate Innate Immunity: Malawians Show Enhanced Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 Responses Compared to Those of Adolescents in the United Kingdom

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Weir, Rosemary E. ; Black, Gillian F. ; Dockrell, Hazel M. ; Floyd, Sian ; Fine, Paul E. M. ; Chaguluka, Steven D. ; Stenson, Sally ; King, Elizabeth ; Nazareth, Bernadette ; Warndorff, David K. ; Ngwira, Bagrey ; Crampin, Amelia C. ; Mwaungulu, Lorren ; Sichali, Lifted ; Jarman, Elizabeth ; Donovan, Linda ; Blackwell, Jenefer M. (2004)

To investigate the role of innate immunity in variable efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in Malawi and the United Kingdom, we examined 24-h tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses to mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (PPDs). The rank order in stimulatory potency for different PPDs was the same for all three cytokines. Before vaccination Malawians made higher pro- and anti-inflammatory responses than did United Kingdom subjects. Fewer than 5% of United Kingdom subjects made IL-10 in response to any PPD, compared to 19 to 57% responders among Malawians. Priming for regulatory IL-10 may contribute to the smaller increase in gamma interferon responses in Malawians compared to United Kingdom subjects following BCG vaccination.
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