Light-bulb moment?: towards adaptive presentation of feedback based on students' affective state

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Grawemeyer, Beate ; Holmes, W. ; Gutierrez-Santos, Sergio ; Hansen, A. ; Loibl, K. ; Mavrikis, M. (2015)

Affective states play a significant role in students’ learning behaviour. Positive affective states can enhance learning, whilst negative affective states can inhibit it. This paper describes a Wizard-of-Oz study which investigates whether the way feedback is presented should change according to the affective state of a student, in order to encourage affect change if that state is negative. We presented high-interruptive feedback in the form of pop-up windows in which messages were immediately viewable; or low-interruptive feedback, a glow-\ud ing light bulb which students needed to click in order to access the messages. Our results show that when students are confused or frustrated high-interruptive feedback is more effective, but when students are enjoying their activity, there is no difference. Based on the results, we present guidelines for adaptively tailoring the presentation of feedback based on students’ affective states when interacting with learning environments.
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