The past becomes the present: German national identity and memory since reunification

Doctoral thesis English OPEN
Barnard, MJ

History and national consciousness are central to the creation and sustaining of national \ud identity. Although much has been written on German national identity, there has been \ud little examination of how the 60th anniversary of the Allied air campaign or expulsion of \ud ethnic Germans are remembered from the perspective of the Germans as victims. \ud Reflecting the changing status of the National Socialist past as it continues to affect the \ud present, this thesis argues there were significant disparities between official and popular \ud perceptions of national identity and memory.\ud Presenting a focussed examination of current developments in German society and \ud politics from a German perspective, this thesis examines why many in Germany have \ud rejected a national identity based on a constitutional patriotism and collective \ud atonement. Debates conducted by prominent intellectuals, journalists and academics in \ud leading newspapers and magazines have been compared to statements from Ministers \ud and official reports in order to ascertain the extent to which elite conceptions of national \ud identity find resonance within Germany. Providing fresh evidence from periodicals, \ud archive publications, eyewitness testimonies and books, this informative and arguably \ud compelling thesis makes a significant and original contribution on how German history \ud and identity are now being perceived and represented in Germany.\ud Competing perceptions of the past and present warrant urgent recognition because so \ud long as a disparate national identity and culture of remembrance continues there can be \ud no effective reconciliation with either the German elite or with others. A greater \ud understanding and recognition of the themes addressed however could not only \ud encourage greater toleration, but also perhaps dispel the increasing sense of bitterness \ud concerning recent aspects of the country's past.
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    Chapter 1 German Citizenship - the Legacy of Blood.................................................30 Chapter 3 Xenophobia and Right-Wing Violence in Germany...................................... 104 Chapter 4 Collective Guilt or 'Atonement' of Contempt?........................................... 157 Chapter 5 Contested Memory - the 60th Anniversary of the Air War.............................. 206 Chapter 6 Contested Sites of Memory - Symbols for and against Expulsion..................... 259 Acts of Violence with Proven or Suspected Right-Extremist.................. 154 Motivation Per 100,000 inhabitants, 1999 and 2000 Acts of Violence with Proven or Suspected Right-Extremist.................. 155 Motivation by Land, 1999 and 2000 Acts of Violence with Proven or Suspected Right-Extremist.................. 156 Motivation by Land, 1997 and 1998 JACOBI, H. 4. Dezember 1944 - Bombenterror, Feuersturm und Brandgas - Fast 7000 Menschen miissen sterben. Heilbronner Stimme, 03.04.03, p. 18.

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