Terrorism and cyber attacks as hybrid threats: defining a comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats to global peace and security

Article English OPEN
Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik ; Gunneriusson, Hakan (2014)
  • Publisher: The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2252595
  • Subject:
    acm: ComputingMilieux_COMPUTERSANDSOCIETY | ComputerApplications_COMPUTERSINOTHERSYSTEMS | GeneralLiterature_MISCELLANEOUS | ComputingMilieux_LEGALASPECTSOFCOMPUTING

Multimodal, kinetic and non-kinetic threats to international peace and security, including cyber-attacks, low intensity asymmetric conflict scenarios, global terrorism, piracy, transnational organized crime, resources security, retrenchment from globalization and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, were identified by NATO as ‘hybrid threats,’ which state actors are ill-equipped to handle. This interdisciplinary article predicts that military doctrines, traditional concepts of war and peace, and legal perceptions will be challenged by the nature of these threats.
  • References (8)

    15 Ibid.

    16 Sveriges Radio, “Spy Executives leaves cooperative body in protest,” last modified November 04, 2012, http://sverigesradio.se/sida/ artikel.aspx?programid=83&artikel=5334446.

    17 Harel Amos and Avi Issacharoff, “Hamas boosting anti-aircraft arsenal with looted Libyan missiles,” The Free Republic, last modified October 26, 2011, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/ news/2798512/posts.

    18 See e.g. Matt M. Matthews, “We Were Caught Unprepared: The 2006 Hezbollah-Israeli War,” (Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, 2008).

    19 An unnatural high percentage of children got Nacrolepsy in Scandinavia by birdflue vaccine, some genes was sensitive, http:// birdflu666.wordpress.com/2012/02/24/5740/. In 2010, the town Östersund was affected by Cryptosporidium, a parasite which uses humans (and other animals too) as hosts for its reproduction. http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/nyhetsarkiv/2010/smittskyddsinstitutets-arbete-med-det-vattenburna-utbrottet-av-cryptosporidium-i-ostersund/.

    20 Hakan Gunneriusson, “Nothing is taken serious until it get serious,” Defence Against Terrorism Review, no. 1 (2012).

    21 For a definition US Army Field Manual (FM) 3-07, see Stability Operations, defined broadly as “the Army's approach to the conduct of full spectrum operations in any environment across the spectrum of conflict,” http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-07.pdf.

    22 Also referred to as 'RtoP', describing the international responsibility to protect humans from genocide and crimes and humanity and manifest in UN GA Resolution A/RES/63/308 on the Responsibility to Protect.

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