Genetic and environmental vulnerabilities in children\ud with neurodevelopmental disorders

Other literature type, Article English OPEN
Karmiloff-Smith, Annette ; D’Souza, Dean ; Dekker, Tessa M ; Van Herwegen, Jo ; Xu, Fei ; Rodic, Maja ; Ansari, Daniel (2012)
  • Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1073/pnas.1121087109
  • Subject: Biological Embedding of Early Social Adversity: From Fruit Flies to Kindergartners Sackler Colloquium

One might expect that children with varying genetic mutations or children raised in low socioeconomic status environments would display different deficits. Although this expectation may hold for phenotypic outcomes in older children and adults, cross-syndrome comparisons in infancy reveal many common neural and sociocognitive deficits. The challenge is to track dynamic trajectories over developmental time rather than focus on end states like in adult neuropsychological studies. We contrast the developmental and adult approaches with examples from the cognitive and social domains, and we conclude that static models of adult brain lesions cannot be used to account for the dynamics of change in genetic and environmentally induced disorders in children.
  • References (49)
    49 references, page 1 of 5

    1. Butterworth B (2010) Foundational numerical capacities and the origins of dyscalculia. Trends Cogn Sci 14:534-541.

    2. Clahsen H, Temple CM (2003) Words and rules in children with William's syndrome. Language Competence Across Populations: Toward a Definition of Specific Language Impairment, eds Levy Y, Schaeffer J (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ), pp 323-352.

    3. Karmiloff-Smith A (1998) Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders. Trends Cogn Sci 2:389-398.

    4. Karmiloff-Smith A (2009) Nativism versus neuroconstructivism: Rethinking the study of developmental disorders. Dev Psychol 45:56-63.

    5. Mareschal D, et al. (2007) Neuroconstructivism: How the Brain Constructs Cognition (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford).

    6. Farran EK, Karmiloff-Smith A (2012) Developmental Disabilities Across the Lifespan: A Neuroconstructivist Approach (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford).

    7. Johnson MH (2001) Functional brain development in humans. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 475-483.

    8. Huttenlocher PR, Dabholkar AS (1997) Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol 387:167-178.

    9. Mills DL, Coffy-Corins S, Neville H (1997) Language comprehension and cerebral specialisation from 13-20 months. Dev Psychol 13:397-445.

    10. Meaney MJ, Szyf M (2005) Environmental programming of stress responses through DNA methylation: Life at the interface between a dynamic environment and a fixed genome. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 7:103-123.

  • Related Research Results (1)
  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark