Diurnal variation in swim performance remains, irrespective of training once or twice daily

Article English OPEN
Martin, Louise ; Nevill, Alan ; Thompson, Kevin (2007)
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics
  • Subject: C600

Fast swim times in morning rounds are essential to ensure qualification in evening finals. A significant time-of-day effect in swimming performance has consistently been observed, although physical activity early in the day has been postulated to reduce this effect. The aim of this study was to compare intradaily variation in race-pace performance of swimmers routinely undertaking morning and evening training (MEG) with those routinely undertaking evening training only (EOG). Methods: Each group consisted of 8 swimmers (mean ± SD: age = 15.2 ± 1.0 and 15.4 ± 1.4 y, 200-m freestyle time 132.8 ± 8.4 and 136.3 ± 9.1 s) who completed morning and evening trials in a randomized order with 48 h in between on 2 separate occasions. Oral temperature, heart rate, and blood lactate were assessed at rest, after a warm-up, after a 150-m race-pace swim, and after a 100-m time trial. Stroke rate, stroke count, and time were recorded for each length of the 150-m and 100-m swims. Results: Both training groups recorded significantly slower morning 100-m performances (MEG = +1.7 s, EOG = +1.4 s; P < .05) along with persistently lower morning temperatures that on average were –0.47°C and –0.60°C, respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in blood-lactate, heart-rate, and stroke-count responses (P > .05). All results were found to be reproducible (P > .05). Conclusions: The long-term use of morning training does not appear to significantly reduce intradaily variation in race-pace swimming or body temperature.
  • References (15)
    15 references, page 1 of 2

    1. Reilly T, Marshall S. Circadian rhythms in power output on a swim bench. J Swimming Res. 1991;7:11-13.

    2. Sinnerton SA, Reilly T. Effects of sleep loss and time of day in swimmers. In: Maclaren D, Reilly T, Lees A, eds. Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming: Swimming Science VI. London: E & FN Spon; 1992:399-404.

    3. Baxter C, Reilly T. Influence of time of day on all-out swimming performance. Br J Sports Med. 1983;17:128-130.

    4. Arnett MG. The effect of a morning and afternoon practice schedule on morning and afternoon swim performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15:127-131.

    5. Reilly T. Swimming. In: Reilly T, Secher N, Snell P, Williams C, eds. Physiology of Sports. London: E & FN Spon; 1990:217-258.

    6. Edwards B, Waterhouse J, Atkinson G, Reilly T. Exercise does not necessarily influ - ence the phase of the circadian rhythm in temperature in healthy humans. J Sports Sci. 2002;20:725-732.

    7. Hill DW, Leiferman JA, Lynch NA, Dangelmaier BS, Burt SE. Temporal specificity in adaptations to high intensity exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:450- 455.

    8. Souissi N, Gauthier A, Sesboue B, Larue J, Davenne D. Effects of regular training at the same time of day on diurnal fluctuations in muscular performance. J Sports Sci. 2002;20:929-937.

    9. Horne JA, Ostberg O. A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol. 1976;4:97-110.

    10. Reilly T, Brooks GA. Selective persistence of circadian rhythms in physiologic responses to exercise. Chronobiol Int. 1990;7:59-67.

  • Metrics
    0
    views in OpenAIRE
    0
    views in local repository
    53
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    Northumbria Research Link - IRUS-UK 0 53
Share - Bookmark